Organisational Behaviour What Is Organisational Behaviour?

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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
What is organisational behaviour?
The study of human behaviour, attitudes and performance within an organisational setting; drawing on theory, methods and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology to learn about individual, groups and processes. Three different OB perspectives

Macro-perspective; the big picture
Micro-perspective; the smaller units
Meso-perspective; integration and movement between macro and micros Three levels of OB
Individuals > groups > organisations
OB as a science
Scientific discipline
Theories and methods can be developed to better understand and explain behaviour Concerned with predictions and explanations
Fredrick Windsor taylor – four principles of scientific management 1. Using scientific analysis, managers precisely specify every element of an employee’s work which replaces old rule-of-thumb methods (Job Design) 2. Managers select and then train, teach and develop employees, unlike in the past when employees chose their own work and trained themselves (human Resource Management) 3. Managers are responsible for ensuring that all work is done according to their specification (Performance, Monitoring and rewards) 4. There is a division of labour based on expertise; managers manage because of their superior knowledge while employees do what they are best at (the development of management profession) Human relations school

Elton mayo
Believed that the “work problem” (dissent, disobedience, industrial unrest) was a result of psychological disturbances brought about by the alienating nature of work. Mayo thought that we can improve employee happiness bby making work more involving and by recognising its social nature.

The hawthorn study
Originally looked at the impact of working environment on productivity e.g. amount of light workers were exposed to during work By spending so much time around the workers, researchers began to notice a number of important social factors that had an impact on productivity Despite the isolating effects of standardisation and increasing technical division of labour, work remains a group activity. As a result of their need for recognition, security and sense of belonging, workers will gravitate towards informal groups whether formal work organisation reflects this or not. Informal group exercises a strong form of social control over the work habit and attitude of its members. Managers should recognise the impact of these informal groups in exerting an influence on productivity. Organisations should seek to ensure a good fit between formal and informal groups. Weber’s formal bureaucracy is characterised by:

Specialised individual positions
Formal hierarchy
Rules and standard operating procedures
Set boundaries for each dept
Standardised training and career paths
Changes from traditional to modern
Intensifying competition meant that companies needed to become: More innovative in terms of customer service
Implement continuous improvement in manufacturing
More diverse in terms of products and services they offer
New organisation model
Networked; emphasis on teams, systems for sharing information, cross functional involvements Flat; reducing layers and empowering more employees
Flexible; intensified completion, accounting for life cycles, unpredictability of external environment Divers; career trajectories, core and peripheral workforces
Global; interactions across boarders

Employment relationship
Employment relationship is the set of arrangements and work practices that describe and govern the relationships between employees and employers. The relationship consists of economic, social and psychological contracts. The psychological contract refers to a shared cultural understanding of what is right, good and fair about the ongoing exchange. Key employment relationship changes

Short term job security; life time employment to life time employability and being...
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