Principles and Function of Management

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This assessment will look at the Principles and Functions of Management. Which mentions there is a difference between what a manager should do and what they actually do? According to many writers observation. Subsequently, I will comment by usage of my own knowledge of management theories and concepts. Further more, it is based on an experience and press stuffs. Due to main discussions, my assessment can be divided into following paragraph:

I.Introduction
In this order I will define:
-What is a manager?
-Why do we need the management?
-Theories management: X and Y
-Levels of management

II. Presentation
In this case I am going to explain:
- What a management should do?
-What they actually do?
-How come there are the differences?
-How does it influence on organizational values?
II.Conclusion
-Summaries the main points
-Add solution and recommendation
III.Introduction

Long time ago, there was a concept of manager in every social class. Because people are always looking forward an individual, who can lead organization in a right way. Thus, managers are people responsible for the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the efforts of organization members and of using all organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals.

The organizations tend to approach its objectives. Because of this, they desire there is a productive work. In term of this, we need to bring people together. It leads to combine experiences, knowledge, and efficiency resources. It is likely to achieve more than by people working on their own. Furthermore, the managers can make a planning to express goals in term of profit, market share… in order to achieve these objectives the organizations require to have right people having responsibility, to make planning in the right time. The staff are required to performance the tasks given by the managers. Due to Pearce and Robinson statement that manager is: The process of optimizing human, material, and financial contributions for the achievement of organizational goals.

In any organizations, the managers are distinguished by their functions and their level of responsibility. Therefore, depicting in a pyramid can be clearly shown operational, junior, middle and senior managers in ascending order of quantity. The junior managers are close to operational level such as foreman, team leader, coordinator of whom role is to co-ordinate the work of non-managerial employees and to have direct responsibility for machinery and materials. Next, the middle managers are usually accountable for the work of junior managers and they in turn report to senior management and they have limits to their responsibilities. Continued, the senior managers are executives, at the highest level of organization responsible for its overall direction and coordination and for directing its major activities. They are responsible for controlling, directing, planning, organizing and for providing strategic leadership to the company, also, for the failure or the success of the organization.

The potential for managerial leadership in terms of two opposite sets of assumptions taken shape by Douglas McGregor (1960) is known as Theory X and Theory Y. First of all, Theory X managers who described to be lazy, irresponsible, relatively 11/8/2008 unambitious have to be directed and controlled under coercion in. However, the importance here is that they want security which means they are not only very directive in approach to leadership, but also strict and authoritarian with their subordinates. This theory can be seen as modern management method. In contrast, Theory Y managers are a view of positive human nature will see work as natural as resting, also they are self-motivated and self-directed. Furthermore, they seek responsibility and creatively to solve organizational problems. They will encourage the development of self-managed teams in...
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