"Experiment" Essays and Research Papers


 Experiment #1: Introduction to Experimentation Submitted by: Neann Klara M. De Jesus BS Psychology II Submitted to: Dr. Geraldine E. Tria ABSTRACT SUMMARY The first experiment done by the class was called “Introduction to Experimentation”. Its main objective is to give basic knowledge about some of the logic of experimentation. The class was divided into groups of 2. In each group there was an experimenter (E) and a subject (S). The...

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Psychology Experiments

analogue experiment blind design case study confound control group correlation correlational method dependent variable double-blind design epidemiological study A research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants. An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control condition. A detailed account of a person's life and...

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ecoli experiment

Introduction In my report I will discuss what I did as an experiment and what I hope for it to achieve. Firstly I carried out an experiment to assay the effectiveness that a range of disinfectants have on the growth of ecoli and whether or not it can prevent it from growing. From the experiment i should be able to see that some disinfectants have a greater effect than others do. From this I shall then draw a conclusion and evaluation on what was the most effective, and could there have been...

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Mold Experiment

Bread Mold Experiment Mold is something that we often take for granted, as something that makes us have to throw the bread away or the cheese smell bad. Mold is, in fact, a fascinating organism which has had many different uses over the years and our lives would not be the same without it. Most of us know that food seems to become moldy more quickly in the summer than in the winter when it is colder. Food in refrigerators seems to keep longer than food left out in the sun. Is this true? Does temperature...

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Psychology Experiment

is by eating chocolates. To confirm this assumption, the experimenter, Victor Seo has developed an experiment to prove the hypothesis: “people who consume lots of chocolate will produce more acne than people eat less chocolate. 400 students of teenagers with grades ranging from 9 to 11 will be examined divided into four groups each consuming 1 bar, 3 bars, 6 bars, or 10 bars daily. This experiment will remain over a time period of a month. Meals will be served in equal amounts and the amounts of...

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Experiment Plan

Experiment Plan By: Ashley Project Question: What size of bouncy ball bounces the highest, small, medium, or large?   * I predict the following will happen (my hypothesis): I predict that the smallest ball will bounce the highest since it is the lightest. | * Independent Variable: I will be changing the ball size. * Dependent Variable: The height of the bounce. * Controlled Variable: The height that I will drop the balls at. | The materials and amounts of each that is...

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Psychology Experiment

Are you looking for a fun experiment that you can perform for a psychology class? This experiment on gender and memory is relatively quick and easy to perform, which is a bonus if you are short on time and resources. Could gender differences play a role in short-term memory? We often hear women complain that their husbands can't remember important dates like anniversaries or birthdays, but could this phenomenon be due to something like memory differences between men and women. Some previous research...

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Beam Experiment

Experiment 1 - Static Equilibrium - BEAM Objective 1. To study the vertical equilibrium of (a) a simply supported beam 2. To determine the reactions of the beams by (a) the experimental set-up and (b) by using the principles of statics and method of consistent deformation Apparatus TecQuipment SM 104 Beam Apparatus Mk III Figure 1 Experimental Procedures 1. Set up the beam AC with a span of 675mm (as shown in Figure 1). 2. Place two hangers equidistant (100mm) from the...

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Glue Experiment

brand of glue * The type of surface Dependent Variable: * The strength of the glue Controlled Variables: * Same amount of glue (one swipe) * Same amount of time to dry * Same person conducting experiment * Same time of day * Same amount of experiments * Same Net Weight (21g) * Same brand of surfaces * Same person timing (Jet) * Same time and place of investigation * Same length of surface Plan Aim: To see which brands of glues stick the...

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Experiment method,its advantages and disadvantages

the experiment, the observational study and the survey. An experiment is a scientific method in which data are collected to be tested to prove a hypothesis using either independent variables in a closed environment or dependent variables in an opened environment. There are two types of experiment, the laboratory experiment that is as its name suggests conducted in laboratory and the field experiment conducted in a natural environment. The advocates of positivism support the use of experiment due...

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Psychology - Experiment on Stress

In this experiment we are going to describe stress and prove how can a prolonged exposition to it have a negative impact on memory. The definition of stress used in this experiment is: difficulty one suffers that causes worry, emotional tension or loss of concentration. The reason why this topic has been chosen is because stress is a part of nowadays, hectic society and it has a very noticeable effect on people’s performance, in either work or daily life. The outcome of this experiment could be...

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Water Rockets: An Investigational Experiment

understand the principle of aeronautics. Aim The aim was to design and perform an experiment to determine the volume of water to use in order to obtain maximum height for the bottle rocket. Introduction Bottle rockets are often used in science as an experimental apparatus. Researchers use rocketry to understand the principles of Newton’s law of motion. This report will investigate, design, perform and analyse an experiment on water rockets and explain how a water rocket reaches a maximum height using...

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Scientific Method and Experiment

Beginning with Science 02: Scientific Investigation For this assignment you will do two things: Part I: Evaluate one experimental design. (10 points) Part II: Design your own experiment using the scientific method. (40 points) Review each scenario below, and choose one to complete for your assignment. Each scenario contains specific questions that will ask you to provide examples, explain your suggestions for improvement, and refer to the lesson. Be sure to respond to each question in complete...

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Plant: Experiment and Environmental Variables

PLANT GROWTH EXPERIMENT Numerous environmental variables influence plant growth. Three students each planted a seedling of the same genetic variety in the same type of container with equal amounts of soil from the same source. Their goal was to maximize their seedling's growth by manipulating environmental conditions. Their data are shown below. Plant Seedling Mass (grams) Day 1 Day 30 ...

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Example a Level Psychology Experiment

memory test and scores on a test measuring the chances of becoming a millionaire and any relationship is due to chance Method: Design – the method of the experiment was a correlational study; this was used in order to see whether there was a relationship between the scores on a memory test and scores on a millionaire test. The experiment used co variables, which were the score on the memory test and score on the millionaire test. Controls – in order ensure the test was reliable the extraneous...

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The Marshmallow Experiment- Self Regulation

self-regulation is emerged. So, where does it all begin? Childhood. Pre-school is a great place to start teaching self-regulation. An experiment that I believe to be a useful demonstration of educating children on their self-regulation is group games that promote leadership skills. Materials Needed for Experiment: • Pilot’s hats Procedure To begin this experiment the marshmallow test must be administered to the kids and the results must be recorded. We then separate the kids into two different...

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An Experiment of Adaptation Lab Report

An Experiment of Adaptation Introduction: Throughout history of time, organisms change in relation to their environment, consequently, adaptation is an essential property of life. This experiment is designed to test the adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster. This kind of insect is also called fruit flies, it has been widely used in scientific research because it has a short life cycle about two weeks and it is easy to keep large numbers of them (Manning). Two groups of this species will be used...

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Beet Root Experiment

molecules present. This will therefore make the experiment unfair, because the more pigment molecules present the more pigment molecules that can move out of the cell. Therefore the beetroot used should be freshly cut. pH The pH is also an important factor, as pH can have an effect on the weak interactions and bonds that bound the membrane together. To keep the pH constant it is important to make sure that the same surrounding are used for the experiment. Surface area. The surface area of the beta...

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Ie349-Card Sorting Experiment

Lab Report 1- Card Sorting Experiment Problem: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the difference (if any) between sorting a standard deck of cards and a low vision deck. Three tests: color, suit, and number sorting were compared. The dependent variables in the experiment included time and the number of trials it took for the student to complete the task successfully. The independent variables were sorting the two different decks by color, suit, and number. Hypothesis: ...

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Bending Stresses in a T-Beam Experiment

engineering • Allows safe and practical experiments into bending stress in a beam • Realistic and verifiable experiment results • Optional TecQuipment’s Structures Software package for extra ‘virtual’ experiments that simulate and confirm the results from your hardware and allow extended experiments • Optional STR2000 unit including TecQuipment’s Structures Software package for automatic data acquisition and virtual experiments • One of many interchangeable experiment modules from TecQuipment’s modern...

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An Experiment On Animal Behavior Termite Handedness

works. In our experiment we tested termite “handedness” – if termites prefer to turn left or right. We did this by placing a termite in an ink path with a fork in it which would cause the termite to choose between going left or right. The ink used in the experiment attracts termites insuring they will not run randomly in any direction. The data suggests that termites will prefer to turn left when given a choice even when the right path is identical to the left. Overall, this lab experiment lays the groundwork...

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Experiment and De100 Module Team

Tma05, Introduction to a de100 project on the likeness of a logo A fictitious educational experiment was created and conducted by a team on the DE100 module and therefore they had to maintain plan and undertake a project to pinpoint their potential findings; this therefore meant launching a logo for internet TV channel in order to address whether or not evaluative conditioning works in either experimental or control conditions. The logo was used to question if it would attract an audience and...

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lab report chemistry matriculation experiment 5

Lab report chemistry matriculation experiment 5 Example chemistry lab report matriculation experiment 4. Free ebook, pdf. Lab Session 5, Experiment 4 Chemical Nomenclature. Thursday, January 21, 2010 /. Introduction: The laboratory method used in the experiment is titration. Titration is a method usedin. Chemistry Lab Report on standardization of acid and bases. 34335 views. The flask is swirled to dissolve the KHP sample completely.5. The initial reading. (2011) Chemistry for Matriculation. Selangor...

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Design of Experiments

Design of Experiments (DOE) Tutorial Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques enables designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that could affect the output results in any design. DOE also provides a full insight of interaction between design elements; therefore, it helps turn any standard design into a robust one. Simply put, DOE helps to pin point the sensitive parts and sensitive areas in designs that cause problems in Yield. Designers are then...

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Free and Easy Science Experiment Steps

and Observations Experimental Log Analysis and Discussion Table or Graph Conclusion Application Bibliography Analysis and Discussion The hypothesis was correct according to the experiment the salt and sugar did preserve the slices. In other experiments the apple slices that were sprinkled were preserved also....

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Physics 211 Experiment 4 Newtons Second

Physics 211 Experiment #4 Newton’s Second Law – Atwood’s Machine Newton’s second law (FNET = ma) can be experimentally tested with an apparatus known as an “Atwood’s Machine” (See Figure 1.) Two weights of unequal mass, connected by a thread, are draped over a pulley, as shown in the figure. When released, the larger mass accelerates downward and the smaller one accelerates upward. Figure (1a): The Atwood’s Machine, showing the pulley and the two masses after a run. Figure (1b): A close...

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Outline the particular strengths and weaknesses of research questionnaires, panel studies, lab experiments, and field experiments.

The ways in which the experiments presented above differ is in regard to the setting in which they are conducted. Some are laboratory experiments that take place in a setting created by researchers, and others such as field experiments are conducted in a participants natural setting. Additional ways for communication researchers to conduct there studies would be research questionnaires which ask participants to write their answers to questions researchers pose and panel studies which are surveys...

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Quasi Experiment

- Quasi Experimental Design: If the researcher lacks control over the assignment of participants to conditions and does not manipulate the causal variable of interest, the design is quasi experimental. o Quasi Experiments do not have internal validity because participants are not randomly assigned to conditions and the researcher may have no control over the independent variable. - Basic Confounds in Quasi Experimental Design are : o History o Maturation (Emotional, Physical & Psychological) ...

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The Investigation of the Controlled and the Automatic Processes Employing the Stroop Effect Experiment.

processes employing the Stroop effect experiment. Abstract The interference between the controlled and the automatic processes was observed in the Stroop effect type experiment using two different conditions. The original Stroop effect experiment concluded that the participants will find it more difficult to complete the reading task of the words related to colour meaning in comparison to the reading task of non-colour related words. The result of Stroop experiment supported the notion that control...

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Psychology experiment: Would brand image affect customers' desire to consume

eleven global markets found that two thirds of consumers occasionally treat themselves to luxury branded products (Synovate 2010). With these two phenomenons emerged, thus an experiment is designed aiming to examine whether the brand image could affect customers’ desire to consume or not. Designs In this experiment, random sampling is used for the selection of 200 participants who are all females and are aged from 25-30 as the observers. The participants selected are familiar to the brand...

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Milgram Experiment

so deeply ingrained and powerful that it cancels out a person’s ability to behave morally, ethically, or even sympathetically. In 1963 Milgram carried out an experiment. He hypothesized that individuals who would never intentionally cause someone physical harm would do so if ordered by a powerful authority figure. To carry out the experiment, Milgram designed a shock generator- a large electronic device with 30 switches labeled with voltage levels from 30 volts increasing at 15-volt intervals to...

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Outline and Assess the Use of Experiments in Social Psychology Drawing on the Cognitive Social Perspective and One of the Other Three Perspectives in the Module (Discursive Psychological, Phenomenological or Social Psychoanalytic).

Outline and assess the use of experiments in social psychology drawing on the cognitive social perspective and one of the other three perspectives in the module (discursive psychological, phenomenological or social psychoanalytic). Traditional experimental psychology has been criticised on the grounds of its objectivity and natural scientific human approach to research. The alternative paradigm has been suggested that favoured human scientific approach. One of the main differences between...

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The Philadelphia Experiment

The Philadelphia Experiment The Philadelphia Experiment took place in the fall of 1943 when a group of scientists funded by the U.S. government set out to turn a U.S. Cannon Class destroyer escort into an invisible war machine. The initial conspiracies surrounding the experiment were formulated by two scientists, William L. Moore and Charles Berlitz’. After extensive research, Moore and Berlitz’ concluded that The Philadelphia Experiment went awry when a U.S. Naval Destroyer was used to conduct...

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The Achievement of Masculinity Through Energy-Drink Consumption: Experimental Evidence Supporting a Closer Look at the Popularity of Energy Drinks Among Men”

Men and Masculinity Year of Publication: 2013 Location: http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.hacc.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=c6370a34-1dc6- Hypothesis: Experiment 1: That reminders of masculinity would strengthen men’s desire for energy drinks, measured by their reward drink of choice, if energy drinks and masculinity were associated. Experiment 2: That threatened masculinity would increase the consumption of energy drinks; that affirming the masculine self would allow men to engage in fewer strivings...

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undamped free vibration

Motion of the system will be established by an initial disturbance. Furthermore, if there is no resistance or damping in the system, the oscillatory motion will continue forever with constant amplitude. Such a system is termed undamped. In this experiment the natural frequency for an undamped spring mass system is to be determine by using a mass-spring-damper. THEORY Newton’s 2nd law  …………………….………. ( Equation 1 ) Hence, ………………….……... ( Equation 2 ) Rearrange Equation 2  ...

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Science Fair

science projects and cool experiments generate enthusiasm. Explore these exciting projects and en gaging experiments, which stand out because of their ingenious application of scientific principles. Easy Science Projects Easy science projects are basic projects which can be completed in a relatively short period of time. Basic science projects will be successful when carefully researched and favorably presented. Moldy Bread Experiment The moldy bread experiment is an ideal science project...

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Plant and Light Intensity

digication.com/sheena.../Photosynthesis_Lab_Report‎ The purpose of the experiment was to observe whether light intensity and wavelength affected the rate of photosynthesis. In the experiment we set out to test two ... Rate of Photosynthesis in Elodea Underwater Plant Vs. Light Intensity voices.yahoo.com/rate-photosynthesis-elodea-underwater-plant-38727.ht...‎ Jun 6, 2006 - This experiment served to determine the affects of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis...

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The Stanford Prison Experiment

STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT One of the most interesting studies made in history was led by Philip Zimbardo, a psychologist and a former classmate of Stanley Milgram (who was famous for his Milgram experiment). He sought to expand on Milgram’s experiment about impacts of situational variables on human behavior by simulating a prison environment, in which volunteering students were randomly assigned as prisoners or prison guards. Many controversies have been elicited from this experiment, and it was with...

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Inside the cell

educated prediction): Materials and Methods 1) List specific materials used in your experiments (and sources of these materials). Also list any specialized equipment used. 2) In a clear and organized manner, outline your experimental design and describe the procedures you used to carry out your experiments. Include enough detail such that another Bio 152 student could repeat your experiment. If there were elements of last week’s procedure that you performed, cite the Enzymology...

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Implicit Attitude Formation Through Classical Conditioning

FORMATION THROUGH CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Michael A. Olson and Russell H. Fazio Indiana University Abstract-We sought to demonstrate that attitudes can develop through implicit covariation detection in a new classical conditioning paradigm. In two experiments purportedly about surveillance and vigilance. participants viewed several hundred randomly presented words and images interspersed with critical pairings ofvalenced unconditioned stimuli (USs) with novel conditioned stimuli (CSs). Attitudes ...

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Exposure to short term and long term memory

the participants on Condition B were so concentrated on getting the directions right that they didn’t actually stop and look at the experimenter asking for directions. Introduction The students’ experiments in this study ‘Exposure to short term and long term memory’ an investigation the exposure to short term in comparison to long term memory. The students found that there was a definite difference between short term memory of participants compared...

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Science Essay

conclusion (232). Frankenstein is disgusted because he must go to a slaughter-house to get parts for his creation. Frankensteins disgust shows how horrible and demoralizing his scientific endeavors are, and he continues his experiment despite the negative affect his experiment has on his health. He realizes the study to which you apply yourself has a tendency to weaken your affections, and to destroy your taste for those simple pleasure in which no alloy can possibly mix, then that study is certainly...

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Quasi-Experimental Research vs. True Experiments

Quasi-Experimental Research vs. True Experiments Unit 9 November 18, 2012 Introduction I will compare and contrast quasi-experimental research and true experiments by addressing their weaknesses and strengths. Throughout my project I will give a detailed description of my experimental method used, as well as a thorough justification of why I selected this method as well as my sampling plan. I will also identify the target...

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Describe What Is Involved in the Experimental Method as It Is Used in Psychology and Its Limitations

or vary in some way. By employing both experimental and control groups in an experiment, investigators are enabled to rule out the possibility that something other than the experimental manipulation produced the results observed during the experiment. This type of research can be broadly divided into three main types: The Laboratory Experiment, The Field Experiment and The Natural Experiment. In a laboratory experiment, there is a systematic variation of the independent variables while other irrelevant...

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beam due to applied loadings. A bending moment experiments may be vary according to experiments. The moment is calculated and measure as force times distance of the force applied to the pivot point. As a result, the bending moment will have newton-metres (N.m) as its unit. Objectives The aim of the experiment is to understand the concept of the structural engineering studies in simpler way, which is through an experiment. At the end of the experiment, the bending moment at any given point along a...

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The Feeding Behavior of the Protist known as Tetrahymena vorax Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to study the rate of phagocytosis of the specific protist known as Tetrahymena vorax. This certain kind of protist feeds at a normal rate when conditions are normal. We began the experiment of understanding how Tetrahymena feeds at normal temperatures. Doing so, we allowed the Tetrahymena to feed at specific time limits and then killed the protist with gluderaldheyde to detect how much...

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International Rivalry

Created using Notebooks by Droid-Veda LLP Jan-31-2013 The data resulted from the experiment shows how there was difference between the average time read between the control group and the experimental group. the experimental group had a word list with conflicting word stimuli, causing the there to be a thought processing allowing the participant to read the color of the word rather than the word itself. The thought processing took more time, resulting in the experimental group to take a longer time...

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Reward and Punishment ; a Motivator in Child's Learning

Manaman 3F3- BS Psychology I. INTRODUCTION Operant conditioning is one of the many ways of learning, which is constructed by the means of giving rewards and punishment in an individual. The type of conditioning that going to be used in this experiment holds a specific behavior and consequences, consequences could be either a reward or a punishment that could have an effect in learning. Reward and punishment are modulators of an individual’s performance. According to B.F Skinner, internal thoughts...

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Sensory Evaluation of Chesa Fruit Cookies

carbohydrate. 3. To determine the significant difference among the 3 treatments against the commercial cookies. 4. To compare the chesa fruit cookies to commercially sold cookies. The one-shot experimental design was used in this study. The experiment was divided into 4 phases. Phase 1 involved the making and production of the cookies. Phase 2, the product was subjected for sensory evaluation using hedonic scale. Phase 3, the prepared cookies was subjected for cost benefit analyses and Phase...

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Quantitative research methods

replicable, the data obtained in an experiments must be reliable; that is, the same result must be obtained, if the study is repeated by another researcher. If observations are not repeatable, our descriptions and explanations are thought to be unreliable. VII. The researcher attempts to study behaviour under controlled conditions. This is the most important characteristic because it enables the researchers to identify the causes of his or her observations. Experiments are conducted in an attempt to...

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Exploring the Various Definitions in Statistics

Pilot study-a small-scale experiment or set of observations undertaken to decide how and whether to launch a full-scale project Open and closed questions- An open question can't be answered with a simple one word answer, such as "yes" or "no." It forces the person to give a longer, more detailed answer.  Closed question: "Do you like school?"  Open question: "How do you feel about school?" Data Logging-Data logging is commonly used in scientific experiments and in monitoring systems where...

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Eating Chocolate Helps Students Become

Eating Chocolate Helps Students Become Happier Henry Vuong Dennis Lin Stella Zhang Introduction: Our experiment is based on a former experiment described in the article A Scientific Experiment, In Search of Chocolate Happiness. It was an experiment in a mall Cafe called Butler Chocolate, with a purpose of finding a way to help shoppers become happier. By giving each customer a piece of Butler's chocolate, the Cafe hoped to increase the number of smiling faces at the mall. Early findings...

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Beginning with Science Study Sheet

Beginning with Science 02: Scientific Investigation For this assignment you will do two things: Part I: Evaluate one experimental design. (10 points) Part II: Design your own experiment using the scientific method. (40 points) Review each scenario below, and choose one to complete for your assignment. Each scenario contains specific questions that will ask you to provide examples, explain your suggestions for improvement, and refer to the lesson. Be sure to respond to each question in complete...

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Charity Gift Effect on Donations

It follows that charitable companies should offer a few thank you gifts to increase donations right? Wrong. According to a recent study by George Newman and Jeremy Shen, thank you gifts actually decrease charitable donations. Six separate experiments were utilized within this study to explain the counterintuitive phenomenon. Their findings offer support for the motivational crowding theory, in which extrinsic motivators such as gifts undermine intrinsic motivation. Shen and Newman initially...

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Measurement And Density

answer, or what problem are you trying to explain? Hypothesis After reading the lab instructions - but before starting the lab - record your best “educated guess” about each experiment: Experiment 1: Which method of finding the density give you the least percent error and why? Experiment 2: After completing the first experiment, answer this question. Which block do you think has the highest density and why? Experimental Design List the materials used in this lab, and write a brief explanation of...

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Bio Lap Report on Thermo Regulation

the beaker Dependent Variable. The temperature of the water/The amount of heat lost Controlled Variables. The apparatus The volume of water used 50cm3 The time intervals the temperature is measured over Surface on which the experiment will be done (conduction) The same shape of beaker Method. Apparatus: • 5 beakers each of a different Surface area to volume ratio • 1 thermometer • 500 cm3 Hot water • 1 Stopwatch • 1 Kettle • 5 Lid with a hole Table of...

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False Memory

memory may be changed in order to incorporate new information or experiences. Brainerd, Forrest, Karibian, and Reyna (2006) concluded that the developmental course of a false memory illusion involves a level of qualitative change. They conducted an experiment studying six such effects along with an alternative method of measuring developmental increases in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion comparing learning-disabled children versus nonlearning-disabled children. They hypothesized that learning-disabled...

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record your best “educated guess” about what will happen in the experiment. Explain what lead you to this hypothesis. | Experimental Design List the materials used in this lab, and a brief explanation of the procedures you followed. (You do not need to retype the procedure; simply summarize your procedures). Add #’s where necessary. Materials: (summarize methods used):| Data Experiment 1 Data and Observations Step 4 Record the initial pH value of...

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Limiting Reactants Lab

beakers, funnel, filter paper. Reaction Involved in Experiment: 2KI + Pb(NO3)2 PbI2 + 2KNO3 DATA TABLE: SubstanceUsed | Volume (dm3)± 0.0005 | Concentration (M) | Mass (g)±0.001 | Kl | 0.01 dm3 | 0.30 | --- | Pb(NO3)2 | 0.01 dm3 | 0.50 | --- | PbI2 (Residue) | --- | --- | 0.625 g | Part 1 (To determine the limiting reagent): * Given information: * In this experiment, 0.003mol reacts with 0.0005mol * Concentration...

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Composition of Concurrent Forces

Composition of Concurrent Forces Abstract— The experiment aims to show the relationship of different forces acting at the same time by using different variables namely, the equilibrant force, the resultant, and the given forces Fa and Fb. The equilibrant force is the force that establishes equilibrium while the resultant is the addition of the given forces and is also the opposite of the equilibrant. The objective of the experiment is to determine the resultant of two forces experimentally, to...

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