android

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  • Topic: Java, Virtual machine, Android
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Android
Sumita Nagah

1

Abstract

are currently approximately 300,000 apps available for Android, from a total of 500,000 apps over the life of Android. Apps can be downloaded from
third-party sites or through online stores such as
Android Market, the app store run by Google.
Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone
platform worldwide in Q4 2010 with over 190 million Android devices in use by October 2011.

What is Android? Android is software available
for mobile device now a days which include operating system, middleware and key application. AndroidSDK provides tools and APIs necessary
to begin developing application on Android platform using JAVA programming language. In this term paper we have discuss the history of Android, the architecture on which it works? Various application developments like android market. The various GUI android challenges faced by developer. Comparison to other technology is also

discussed in this paper and like other every technology have pros and cons which will discussed later on. Where today the Android stand in market is also discussed.

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2.1

Android Architecture

Peel away Android’s layer, dig down to its deep,
and you’ll find a Linux kernel. Libraries are a
layer above, a variety of frameworks above that,
and a final layer of applications sits on the top.
The library layer is home to code for entities such
as media processors for playback and recording of
audio and video, the core of the Web browser, font
rendering, and the SQLite relational database engine. The Android runtime also lives in the library layer. Above the libraries reside frameworks, which
are sets of reusable services and common components available to applications. For example, one sort of framework is a content provider, which is
any service that handles the storage and retrieval
of data. The application interface into the SQLite
engine is a specific instance of a content provider.
Applications run at the top of the OS stack.
Android will ship with a set of core applications,
including an e-mail client, a calendar, a Web
browser, and more. And, of course, it is toward
this topmost layer that all of the faculties of the
Android SDK are directed.
When a developer writes an Android application, that developer codes in Java. The Java source is compiled to Java bytecodes, but – to
execute the application on Android – the developer must execute a tool called dx. This tool converts Java bytecode to what is referred to as
dex bytecodes. ”Dex” is short for ”Dalvik executable,” Dalvik being the virtual machine that

What is Android?

Android is a operating system for mobile devices
such as smartphones and tablet computers. It
is developed by the Open Handset Alliance led
by Google. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005.The unveiling of the Android distribution on November 5, 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of

84 hardware, software, and telecommunication
companies.Android consists of a kernel based on
the Linux kernel, with middleware, libraries and
APIs written in C and application software running on an application framework which includes Java-compatible libraries based on Apache Harmony. Android uses the Dalvik virtual machine with just-in-time compilation to run Dalvik bytecode, which is usually translated from Java bytecode. Android has a large community of developers writing applications (”apps”) which extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write

primarily in a customized version of Java.There
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actually executes Android applications.
From a developer’s perspective, Dalvik looks
like a Java Virtual Machine, but strictly speaking, Dalvik is not a JVM. As stated above, Dalvik executes dex bytecode, not Java bytecode. And
there are differences in the structure of Dalvik
class files as compared to Java class files. Nevertheless, for all intents and...
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