Organization A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose i) Distinct purpose
iii) Deliberate structure
Management The process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. The process represents the primary activities of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Managers Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.
First-line Managers Individuals who manage the work of the non-managerial employees who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products.
Middle Managers Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers.
Top Managers Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
Efficiency Getting the most output from the least inputs
* Doing things right
Effectiveness completing activities so that organizational goals are attained * Doing the right things
Planning Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Organizing Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals. e.g. what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, where decisions are to be made
Leading Working with and through people to accomplish goals e.g. motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, resolving conflicts
Controlling Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.
* To ensure that the activities are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations.
Management Roles (Henry Mintzberg)
Roles| Description| Activities|
Figurehead| Obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature| Greeting visitors; signing legal documents| Leader| Responsible for the motivation and activation of subordinates; responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties| Performing almost all activities that involve subordinates| Liaison| Maintains self-developed network of outside contacts and informers who provide favors and information| Acknowledging mail; doing external board work; performing other activities that involve ousiders|
Monitor| Seeks and receives wide variety of special information to develop thorough understanding of organization and environment| Reading periodicals and reports; maintaining personal contacts| Disseminator| Transmits information received from outsiders or from other subordinates to members of the organization| Holding informational meetings; making phone calls to relay information| Spokesperson| Transmits information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions, results, etc| Holding board meetings; giving information to the media|
Entrepreneur| Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates “improvement projects” to bring about change| Organizing strategy and review sessions to develop new programs| Disturbance Handler| Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances| Organizing strategy and review sessions that involve disturbances and crises| Resource Allocator| Responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds| Scheduling; performing any activity that involves budgeting and the programming of subordinates’ work| Negotiator| Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations| Participating in union contract negotiaions|
Technical skills Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field
Human skills The ability to work well with other people