MANAGEMENT: SCIENCE, THEORY AND PRACTICE
One of the most important human activities is managing. Ever since people began forming groups to accomplish aims they could not achieve as individuals, managing has been essential to ensure the coordination of individual efforts. As society has come to rely increasingly on group effort and as many organized groups have grown larger, the task of managers has been rising in importance. The purpose of this book is to promote excellence of all persons in organizations, but especially managers, aspiring managers, and other professionals. Definition of Management: Its Nature and Purpose
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, accomplish efficiently selected aims. This basic definition needs to be expanded: • As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. • Management applies to any kind of organization.
• It applies to managers at all organizational levels.
• The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus. • Managing is concerned with productivity; that implies effectiveness and efficiency. Here are some managers you may know: Steve Jobs at Apple Computer: Bill Ford. Jr. al Ford Motor Company: Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems; Jack Welch of General Electric and his successor. Jeff Immelt Cisco’s John Chambers; and Bill Gates of Microsoft One of the most powerful managers is George W. Bush, President of the United States. The Governor of the State of California is also a manager and, in some ways, so is Pope John Paul II, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the largest global organizations But middle-level managers and first—line supervisors also make important contributions 10 the goal of their organizations. All manage organizations. We define an organization as a group of people working together to create a surplus. . In business...
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