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    Solvents

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    chemicals that give it strength‚ flexibility‚ and resistance to chipping and peeling. WHAT IS IT MADE OF? 1. First‚ solvents are used to mix together all the ingredients in a nail polish to yield a uniform liquid product. a. The type and amount of solvent determines how thick a polish is and how long it takes to dry b. Most Common solvent- ethyl acetate. c. Ill talk more about what the solvent does in a few slides. d. See pic 2. Another ingredient are resins- a polymer material that holds the polish

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    Solvent Extraction

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    SOLVENT EXTRACTION Solvent extraction‚ also known as liquid extraction and partitioning‚ is a method to separate compounds based on their relative solubility in two different immiscible liquid‚ usually water and organic solvent. It is an extraction from one liquid phase to another liquid phrase. Liquid extraction is a basic technique in chemical laboratories‚ where it is performed using a separator funnel. This type of process is commonly performed after a chemical reaction as part of the work-up

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    Recrystallization is the primary method for purifying solid organic compounds through the differences in solubility at different temperatures. In this experiment‚ a suitable solvent was first determined. Acetanilide was produced by acetylation of aniline with acetic anhydride. The crude acetanilide was dissolved in a solvent in a heating water bath. The hot solution was filtered and the filtrate‚ cooled slowly in an ice bath as crystals started forming out. As the compound crystallizes from the solution

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    Effect of Organic Solvents

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    SYNTHETIC EXPLOITATION OF ENZYMES: BIOCATALYSIS IN ORGANIC SOLVENTS: FUNDAMENTALS ENZYMES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS 1. Enzymes catalyze a broad spectrum of reactions with high turnover numbers. Rate enhancements approach 1012 fold. 2. Enzymes may accept a wide range of substrates. 3. Enzymes are highly regio and stereoselective. 4. Enzyme reactions take place under mild conditions; this minimizes problems of isomerization and racemization. 5. Enzymatic processes are less hazardous and polluting

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    Water as a Universal Solvent * Because of its high polarity‚ water is able to dissolve most substances. * In a solution‚ the positive hydrogen side of water is attracted to the negative parts if the compound it is dissolving while the negative oxygen is attracted to the positive parts * “Like dissolves like” – describes whether one substance will dissolve in another. Water for example can’t dissolve nonpolar substances Concentrations on Solutions * Solvent: The liquid in which

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    Extraction is a method used for separating and isolating materials. A compound is pulled from solvent A to solvent B and in this case‚ both solvents are miscible. These two concepts are not capable of mixing together; when they are mixed together‚ they form a bilayer. This can be seen when mixing oil and water together. When thinking of extractions‚ one can picture how coffee gets extracted. The flavors‚ molecules‚ caffeine‚ etc. are extracted from the coffee beans. In this experiment‚ a solution

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    Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy Organic Chemistry Laboratory RECRYSTALLIZATION OF ACETANILIDE USING WATER AS SOLVENT Lagarteja‚ M.C.B.; Lim‚ H.G.N.; Lizo‚ K.J.R.; *Macalino‚ M.D.L.; Macapala‚ C. 2D-Pharmacy‚ Faculty of Pharmacy‚ University of Santo Tomas Abstract Recrystallization is a technique used to purify organic solids. This method involves dissolving of a solute in a solvent and inciting the solute to produce a precipitate from a solution. In this experiment‚ acetic anhydride was added

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    Residual solvents Identification and control of the residual solvents (USP 32(467)‚ page 181 Determination by gas chromatography with mass detector and headspace sampler Conditions of the chromatograph Agilent 7890A (LCTG CGMS): * Column DB-624 30m 0.25 mm 1.4µ (CG-2) * Injector temperatura: 160ºC * Flux: 1.0 ml/min * Split: 5:1 * Carrier gas: Helium * Time per test: 30.6 min Conditions of the detector 5975C inert MSD * Data adquisition mode: Scan/SIM * Mass:

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    Title: Prep of t-Butyl Chloride via SN1 Reaction Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to synthesize tert-butyl chloride via an SN1 reaction. t-Butyl Chloride was synthesized from t-Butyl Alcohol using hydrochloric acid in separatory funnel; isolation of t-Butyl Chloride was done under distillation conditions. The experiment resulted in 8.29grams of purified compound‚ which is a 66.27 percent yield. Procedure: As per handout with changes Equation: Mechanism: Results: (Scan

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    different solvents Practical conducted on 5 March‚ 2013 Reported by Pham Vu Hung on 10 March‚ 2013  Introduction: This practical is meant to measure the rate of reaction of the hydrolysis of tertiary-butyl chloride –a colorless‚ liquid organic compound at room temperature that is sparingly soluble in water - in water/acetone and water/isopropanol mixtures. Since there are many influencing factors for the rate of reaction‚ all are kept constant but the intended variable: the solvents. If the

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    Separating Acids and Neutral Compounds by Solvent Extraction Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to use solvent extraction techniques in order to separate a mixture consisting of a carboxylic acid (p-toulic acid)‚ a phenol (p-tert-butylphenol)‚ and a neutral compound (acetanilide). Extraction is the process of selectively dissolving one or more of the compounds of a mixture into an appropriate solvent‚ the solution that contains these dissolved compounds is called an extract (Manion

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    The Effect of Solvent Exposure and Temperature on Beet Cell Membrane Integrity Introduction: • Cell membranes are vital to proper cellular function • Cell membranes consist of a lipid bilayer made up of phospholipids • Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules meaning they have a dual nature in that they show both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-fearing) properties • The amphipathic nature of phospholipids causes them to spontaneously form bilayers in water

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    Green Solvents and Bio Solvents offer the different characteristics as per the bio solvents manufacturing and their applications requirement in the end products. The materials have high demand at a global level and its manufacturing is mainly dominated by North America‚ especially U.S. The major industries for bio & green solvents are cleaners‚ paints & coatings‚ printing inks‚ pharmaceutical‚ and personal care industries. The bio solvent manufacturing companies and research institutions are infusing

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    Thin Layer Chromatography

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    Experiment 5 Title : Thin Layer Chromatography Objectives: i. To distinguish polar and non-polar solvents. ii. To familiar with the analysis technique by using the thin layer chromatography. iii. To differentiate the retention factor‚ Rf for different compounds. [pic] Result: |Compound |Distance traveled by the compound | |o-nitroanaline |2.45

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    ATQ 2

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    crystallization from 100 mL of solvent. 4.) A mixture of three compounds‚ A‚ B‚ and C‚ is to be separated and purified by crystallization. Their solubilities in g/100 mL ethanol are given below. a. 5.) You need to perform a recrystallization using a mixed-solvent system. Which of the ff. solvents could not be used as a solvent airs for the experiment? Explain your selection. Hexane and water. A mixed solvent must contain two miscible solvents‚ in which hexane and water are

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    3.6. Conclusion Various solvent extracts from mahua flower and fruits showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity in different test systems in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity was correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the respective extracts in each assay. 50% acetone proved to be the most efficient solvent for extraction of antioxidants from mahua as the related extract contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds and also exhibited the strongest antioxidant

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    Extraction Introduction: Extraction is the physical process by which a compound or mixture of compounds is transferred from one phase into another. We will be looking specifically at an organic solvent extraction which is a type of solid-liquid extraction. This type of extraction utilizes an organic solvent that has a high affinity for the compound of interest. Most reactions produce a crude mixture of undesired reagent‚ byproducts‚ as well as the desired product. Extraction allows for the separation

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    Membrane Permeability

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    Title Membrane Permeability Aim To determine the effect of various chemicals and high temperature on the membrane permeability of beetroot Hypothesis Organic solvent and high temperature will destroy the cell membrane and make it permeable to the red pigment. The higher the concentration of the alcohol‚ the greater will be this effect. Principle Beetroot is the material used in this experiment to demonstrate the effects of high temperature and chemicals on the permeability of the cell membranes

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    Experiment 1 Procedures

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    brominated product from a minimum amount of solvent. You will need to select a solvent from water‚ 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol. To identify the best solvent‚ use what you have learned in Organic I Chemistry Lab‚ hint: think about what properties makes a good recrystallization solvent. Test your recrystallization solvent in test tubes using the tip of a spatula of your compound. Remember to use a water bath to heat organic solvents. NEVER heat organic solvents directly on a hot plate-always use a hot

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    Solubility

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     different  solvents‚  looking  at  miscible  and  immiscible  pairs  of  liquids‚  and   observing  the  solubility  of  organic  acids  and  bases.     Reference:  Pavia‚  A  Small  Scale  Approach  to  Organic  Laboratory  Techniques  pp.  6-­‐9     Report:     Part  A     1) Results  in  table  form     Solvent:   Solvent:   Solvent:   methanol  

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