"Benzene" Essays and Research Papers

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    Benzene

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    Benzene is a special case of conjugation that leads to an especially stable bonding arrangement. The benzene ring consists of six sp2 hybridized carbon atoms in a regular hexagon. Each carbon forms two σ-bonds with adjacent carbons‚ and a third σ-bond with a hydrogen atom. The 2p orbital on each atom is available for π-bonding. Interaction between the p orbitals on the six carbon atoms forms a conjugated system of π-electrons. Molecules with this bonding arrangement are called aromatic molecules

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    Benzene

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    Benzene 1 Benzene Benzene Identifiers [1] CAS number 71-43-2 PubChem 241 ChemSpider 236 UNII J64922108F EC number 200-753-7 KEGG C01407 ChEBI CHEBI:16716 ChEMBL CHEMBL277500 RTECS number CY1400000 Jmol-3D images Image 1   [2] [3]   [4]   [5] [6]   [7]   [8]   [9] Properties Molecular formula CH Molar mass 78.11 g mol−1 Appearance Colorless liquid Odor aromatic‚ gasoline-like

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    Atom and Benzene

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    Benzene Benzene‚ C(6)H(6)‚ is a clear‚ colorless‚ flammable liquid that is insoluble in water.Its boiling point is 80 degrees C (176 degrees F). In the past benzene was obtained from the distillation of coal in the absence of air. Today most benzene is made syntheticallyfrom petroleum products. The benzene is a closed ring of six atoms connected by bonds that resonatebetween single and double bonds; each carbon is also bound to a single atom. Benzene isinsoluble in water but mixes

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    The global market for linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is expected to reach USD 9.27 billion by 2020‚ according to a new study by Grand View Research‚ Inc. Growing demand for household cleaning & industrial cleaning particularly in emerging market of Asia Pacific is expected to remain a key driving factor for the market. However‚ volatile raw material price is expected to remain a key challenge for market participants. Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) emerged as the leading application segment for

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    Compounds- possess a ring shaped structure Benzene (C6H6)- aka. naphtha - unsaturated cyclic compound - simplest aromatic HC - all C to C bonds are identical; each C has a H atom - substitution reactions occur instead of addition reaction - delocalized pi bonding in benzene imparts stability (aromaticity); responsible for resistance to addition reactions (involve breaking delocalized bonding) Benzene Derivatives- produced when one or more H atoms on benzene is/ are replaced by new group/s such as alkyl

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    Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Bromination of Aromatic Compounds Introduction: The experiment focuses on finding out what kind of activating effects that four different substituents will have on an aromatic benzene ring. The substituents being tested are aniline‚ anisole‚ acetamide (acetanilide)‚ and phenol. All four of these groups are either para or ortho activating. Bromination is the reaction that will be carried out. The melting point ranges of the final products will be taken in order

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    March 13‚ 2015 Answers to Questions: 1.) Arrangement of Reactivity: (fastest to slowest) - Phenol‚ Nitrophenol‚ Acetanilide‚ Benzene‚ Chlorobenzene‚ Aniline - A reaction has occurred if there’s a change in color. The nature of the substituent‚ whether electron-donating to the ring or electron-withdrawing from the ring‚ was responsible for the reactivity of the benzene. Aniline and acetanilide contain amine groups‚ which are electron-donating. Chlorobenzene contains chlorine‚ which is electron-withdrawing

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    Vegetative reproduction

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    compounds of carbon and hydrogen which contain at least one hexagonal ring of carbon called as benzene in their molecule. Aromatic hydrocarbon can contain one or more than one benzene ring. Those compounds which contain more than one benzene ring are known as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon like naphthalene‚ anthracene etc. The aromatic compounds are generally taken as derivatives of benzene. Benzene and its derivatives are mainly used in synthetic organic chemistry. The main source of polynuclear

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    Chemistry of Arenes

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    aromatic hydrocarbon‚ benzene‚ is compound out of just one such cycle; its formula is C6H6. The representation of benzene through a cycle of 6 carbon atoms with 3 double bounds was proposed by Kekule in 1865: In some special conditions‚ benzene can be hydrogenated‚ the result being a cyclic hexane: | +3H2 | |     Under the influence of light‚ chlorine or bromine addition at the benzene’s molecule giving hexachlorocyclohexane: C6H6 + 3Cl2 C6H6Cl6. With ozone‚ the benzene gives a trizonide

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    Alkenes and Alkynes

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    Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Unsaturated hydrocarbons  Have fewer hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon chain than alkanes.  Are alkenes with double bonds.  Are alkynes with triple bonds. 1 Structure of Alkenes  Alkenes (and alkynes) are unsaturated hydrocarbons  Alkenes have one or more double bonds  The two bonds in a double bond are different: - one bond is a sigma () bond; these are cylindrical in shape and are very strong - the other is a pi (π) bond; these involve sideways overlap of

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    displays the 20-day PGPI moving average in blue. “Benzene prices‚ which were up 7% from November‚ continued to push the global petrochemical index higher‚” said Jim Foster‚ Platts senior editor of petrochemical analytics. “Benzene contracts hit record highs in recent months as demand continued to outpace supply. Global toluene prices also rose on the back of high benzene prices and continued strength in the xylene markets.” The 7% increase in benzene‚ a petrochemical used in packaging‚ various plastics

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    of electrophilic aromatic substitution. A strongly charged electrophile‚ in this case a nitro group‚ replaces a proton on the aromatic ring. Aromatic compounds undergo substitution instead of addition to maintain resonance. The substituent on the benzene ring determines where the electrophile will add. Electron withdrawing substituents‚ like nitro group‚ withdraw electrons due to induction and direct position of the carbocation through resonance to add electrophile to meta position. Nitric acid‚ sulfuric

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    Aromatic Compounds

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    compounds possess the benzene ring functional group: G’s FG = aromatic compound or arene benzene ring or aryl grp - other compounds which do not contain a benzene ring are also referred to as “aromatic” based on their similarity in physical & chemical behavior to benzene STRUCTURE OF BENZENE – - there are several characteristics of benzene which‚ although initially seemed contradictory‚ helped finally to determine its enigmatic structure a) Unsaturated Molecular Formula – - benzene ‘s molecular formula

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    chemistry facts

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    CONCEPTS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY • Inductive Effect : Inductive effect is defined as permanent displacement of shared electron pair in a carbon chain towards more electronegative atom or group. Types of Inductive effect : 1.Negative Inductive Effect : (—I effect‚ Electron withdrawing effect) when an electronegative atom or group (more electro negative than hydrogen)is attached to the terminal of the carbon chain in a compound‚ the electrons are displaced in the direction of the attached

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    which is a type of benzene reaction. This reaction consists usually of benzene and an electrophile. The role of the nucleophile is played by the double bond on the benzene ring. IT will react will the electrophile and this reaction will form a carbon cation intermediate. With additional reactions with a base‚ the electrophile fundamentally replaces the hydrogen of the benzene. Benzene is classified as one of the countless aromatic molecules‚ and this is just a plain benzene molecule. A different

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    Sudan 1

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    Sudan-1 has a two-step reaction – diazotization and coupling reactions. Diazotization is the formation of diazonium salt‚ meanwhile‚ the coupling reaction took place when an activated aromatic compound‚ β-naphtol was reacted with the diazonium salt‚ benzene diazonium chloride‚ to form the azo compound known as the 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol. As a result‚ an orange-red precipitate was formed after series of reaction. Hence‚ all the said objectives in this experiment were achieved. INTRODUCTION Amines are

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    pyridine

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    containing a nitrogen atom. 2.Carbon Ring atom in the ring nitrogen stronger than the negative power ‚ thus making the two ‚ 4 - and 6 - ring carbon atom ratio ‚ otherwise it will be more electropositive ‚From the knowledge of the chemistry of the benzene ring can be expected . Aromatic π - electron system does not lone pair of electrons involved On the nitrogen atom ‚ so that the term alkaline and π - pyridine compounds are described for defects . Pyridine ring through the nitrogen. The reaction is

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    acetylene was also done in this experiment. The properties of the formed acetylene such as the reaction of the acetylene as it undergo Ammoniacal silver nitrate test‚ Bromination and oxidation. The reagents that were used to perform this experiment were benzene‚ cyclohexane‚ concentrated H2SO4‚ Calcium Carbide‚ 1.0 M Br2 in CCl4‚ cyclohexane‚ and 1.0 M KMnO4. The apparatuses that were used are micro test tubes‚ 2.0 mL pipet‚ iron clamp‚ 8-in test tube‚ evaporating dish‚ water trough‚ small corks‚ and iron

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    Texas As pollutants in Dallas increase and attention looms what will be done about the team is pressed in gather information that will help in educating the public on what can be done about the top five pollutants. The top five are Formaldehyde‚ Benzene‚ Acetaldehyde‚ Carbon Tetrachloride and Butadiene. The team is addressing the issue of mitigating the pollution of the number polluter in Dallas‚ Formaldehyde. Coordinating the effort in study‚ impact on the local economy‚ and local business will

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    spme

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    EXPERIMENT 4 ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON IN COMMON FUELS BY SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION (SPME) AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS) Abstract In the analysis the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the identification of volatile compounds (hydrocarbon) in fuel. The samples was used is (kerosene‚ diesel‚ thinner and petrol) and one unknown. After the analyte was extracted by SPME in 20min‚ it directly injected

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