DST 643 International Reconstruction and Development
Instructor:S. Aminul Islam
Department of Sociology
University of Dhaka
Md. Sohel Rana
Semester: Spring, 2012
Date: May 10, 2012
The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 and the War Damages
I am grateful to Almighty Allah who gives me my valuable life and time to do something important. He blessed me with the abilities and patience of doing any job easily. The undividable truth of the world is that behind any successful work heir must be helping hand of others. I feel that my term paper about “war damage in Bangladesh in 1971” is a success and behind this achievement I realized the useful comments of some helpful people. I am grateful to S. Aminul Islam sir, course instructor of International Reconstruction and Development, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Dhaka. He helped and gave me advice for preparing this paper, without which I could not complete my work easily. I also thank hose, who helped me to gather information in relative term. This paper provides some important information that will help me a lot in future. This report is held neutrally and never thought to offend someone personally. If anything refers similar offensive, I am sorry for any inconvenience.
The Bangladesh War of Independence, in terms of its human and economic experience, lasted only nine months. Still, it forever changed the character, pace and prospects of economic life in Bangladesh. When it ended, the economy was left prostrate; fortunes had been swept away and much of the capital stock was destroyed or in disrepair. This paper provides a systematic accounting of all these direct and indirect costs, as well as their impact on post-war economic life. Even the most modest assumptions place the direct and indirect cost estimates at $9.53 billion and $14.08 billion respectively, far greater than the $200 million claimed by the United Nations Relief Operations Survey. In short, the war was not a minor event either by absolute or relative measures. It was many folds greater than the magnitude of effort implied by the secessionist's first call to arms. The warring parties may have expected a large conflict; what they failed to anticipate was a cataclysm
In August 1947, the Partition of British India gave birth to two new states; a secular state named India and an Islamic state named Pakistan. Pakistan comprised two geographically and culturally separate areas to the east and the west of India. The western zone was popularly (and for a period of time, also officially) termed West Pakistan and the eastern zone (modern-day Bangladesh) was initially termed East Bengal and later, East Pakistan. Although the population of the two zones was close to equal, political power was concentrated in West Pakistan and it was widely perceived that East Pakistan was being exploited economically, leading to many grievances. Administration of two discontinuous territories was also seen as a challenge. On 25 March 1971, rising political discontent and cultural nationalism in East Pakistan was met by brutal suppressive force from the ruling elite of the West Pakistan establishment in what came to be termed Operation Searchlight. The violent crackdown by West Pakistan forces led to Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declaring East Pakistan's independence as the state of Bangladesh on 26 March 1971. Pakistani President Agha Mohammed Yahya ordered the Pakistani military to restore the Pakistani government's authority, beginning the civil war. The war led to a sea of refugees (estimated at the time to be about 10 million) flooding into the eastern provinces of India. Facing a mounting humanitarian and economic crisis, India started...