The Effect of Leadership on Motivation in Lebanese Non-Profit Organizations

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“The Effect of Leadership on Motivation in Lebanese Non-Profit Organizations”

Submitted to: Advisor: Dr. Sylva Karkoulian Second Reader: Dr. Abdul Nasser Kassar

Baria Daye ID: 201000016 Spring 2012

Table of Contents

Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Objective ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Historical Background ................................................................................................................................... 4 Overview of Leadership Theories .................................................................................................................. 5 Overview of Motivation Theories ............................................................................................................... 10 Framework of Study .................................................................................................................................... 11 Literature Review ........................................................................................................................................ 12 Hypotheses .................................................................................................................................................. 23 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................... 27 Results ......................................................................................................................................................... 32 Discussion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43 Limitations of Study .................................................................................................................................... 44 Conclusion and Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 455 References................................................................................................................................................... 47 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

Abstract
Objective: Using the Path-Goal Leadership Theory and the Expectancy Theory of Motivation, this research paper attempts to study the effect of leadership style on motivation in Lebanese non-profit organizations. Methodology: A sample of 157 Lebanese NGO employees/volunteers were administered the study questionnaire composed of three sections: Demographic information, the Path-Goal Theory Leadership Questionnaire, and the Pritchard Ashwood Motivation Assessment Questionnaire (MAQ). Data collected was entered into SPSS software to test the effect of leadership on the motivation connections in Lebanese non-profits. Findings and Results: Results show that the only leadership-correlated motivation connections are the Actions-to-Results and the Results-to-Evaluations expectancies. It was also revealed that the participative leadership style has the most significant effect on those connections and is thus recommended for leaders as the most motivating style for application in Lebanese non-profits, whereas the achievement-oriented leadership style had no significance on motivation. Two of the major hypotheses exhibited in this study were fully supported and two others were fully rejected. Limitations: This study remains subject to the criticisms of the two theories and their assumptions, as well as to the language barrier. Conclusion: Future research exploring the relationship of the findings with demographic data and offering prescriptive actions for leaders to enhance...
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