How Motivation and Leadership Theories Can Be Applied.

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Goal Setting Theory:

In the late 1960s, Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward a goad are a major source of work motivation. That is, goals tel an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be made.

Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of "do your best". Why? The specificity of the goal itself seems to act as an internal stimulus. For instance, when a trucker commits to making 12 round trips between Toronto and Buffalo, New York, each week, this intention gives him a specific objective to try to attain.

The conclusion is that intentions - as articulated in terms of hard and specific goals - are the motivating force. Under proper conditions, they can lead to higher performance.

How a manager can use Goal setting theory for effectiveness:

In order to make the goal setting theory operational a manager may use MBO program:

Management by objective directly advocates specific goals and feedback. MBO implies, rather than explicitly states, that goals must be perceived as feasible. Consistent with goal setting.

MBO program is seen in many businesses like Contruction, Educationan etc.

Reinforcement Theory:

Reinforcement theory explains that one gets motivated if appreciated for his/her good performance and punished for poor performance.

For instance, appreciating a worker in front of colleagues for good work.

How a manager can use Reinforcement theory for effectiveness:

In order to make reinforcement theory operational, a manager may use Employee Recognition program:

Consistent with reinforcement theory, rewarding a behavior with recognition immediately following that behavior is likely to encourage its repetition. You can personally congratulate an employee in private for a good job. You can send a handwritten note or an email message acknowledging something positive that the employee has done. For Employees with a strong need for social acceptance, you can publicly recognize accomplishments. To enhance group hohesiveness and motivation, you can celebrate team successes. For instance, you can throw a team pizza party to celebrate a team's accomplishment.

Theory X and Theory Y:

Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labelled Theory X and other basically positive, labelled Theory Y.

Under theory X, the four assumptions held by managers are:

1. Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to aviod it.
2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
3. Employees will avoid reponsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.
4. Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.

Under theory Y, the four positive assumptions held by manager are:

1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.
3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4. The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.

How a manager can use Reinforcement theory for effectiveness:

In order to make Theory X and Theory Y operational, a manager may use the Employee involvement program:

Employee involvement has become a convenient catchall term to cover a variety of techniques. For instance, it encompasses popular ideas such as employee participation or participative management, representative participation, quality circles etc.

Theory X alligns with the more traditional autocratic style and can be motivated by financial motivational rewards, while Theory Y is consistent with participative management.

Theory X...
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