1. What is Organizational Behavior. Define and explain how it is used in the organizational. * Organizations are social systems. If one wishes to work in them or to manage them, it is necessary to understand how they operate. Organizations combine science and people –technology and humanity. Unless we have qualified people to design and implement, techniques alone will not produce desirable results. Human behavior in organizations is rather unpredictable. It is unpredictable because it arises from people’s deep-seated needs and value systems. However, it can be partially understood in terms of the framework of behavioral science, management and other disciplines. There is no idealistic solution to organizational problems. All that can be done is to increase our understanding and skills so that human relations at work can be enhanced. * Organizational Behavior is field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organization. It is the study and application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. It is a human tool for human benefit. It applies broadly to the behavior of people in all types of organizations, such as business, government, schools and services organizations. It covers three determinants of behavior in organizations: individuals, groups, and structure. OB is an applied field. It applies the knowledge gained about individuals, and the effect of structure on behavior, in order to make organizations work more effectively. OB covers the core topics of motivation, leadership behavior and power, interpersonal communication, group structure and process, learning, attitude development and perception, change process, conflict, job design and work stress Before studying organizational behavior, it is desirable to know the meanings of organization and management. * Organization as a purposeful system with several subsystems where individuals and activities are organized to achieve certain predetermined goals through division of labor and coordination of activities. Division of labor refers to how the work is divided among the employees and coordination refers to how all the various activities performed by the individuals are integrated or brought together to accomplish the goals of the organization. The term organizing is used to denote one aspect of the managerial activities when he or she is preparing and scheduling the different tasks that need to be completed for the job to be done. * Management it refers to the functional process of accomplishing the goals of the organization through the help of others. A manager is an individual who is given the responsibility for achieving the goals assigned to him or her as part of the overall goals of the organization and who is expected to get the job done. The terms of top management, lower management are frequently used to indicate the hierarchical levels of those who are engaged in the process of getting the goals of the organization accomplished.
2. Define and explain
a. Individual Behaviour
* Biographical characteristics are readily available to managers. Generally, they include data that are contained in an employee’s personnel file. The most important conclusions are that age seems to have no relationship to productivity; older workers and those with longer tenure are less likely to resign; and married employees have fewer absences, less turnover, and report higher job satisfaction than do unmarried employees. But what value can this information have for managers? The obvious answer is that it can help in making choices among job applicants. * Ability refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. It is a current assessment of what one can do. An individual’s overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: intellectual and physical abilities. * Learning occurs all...