Motivation Theories

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Motivation Theories
By
Therese Mac Donald

Table of Content

Page 3 – Introduction
Maslow

Page 4- Porter & Lawler

Page 5- David Mc Chelland
F Hertzberg’s
Hackman & Oldham

Page 6- Heekhausen’s Theories
Vroom
Justice S Adams
D Atkinson
B Skinner

Page 7- Conclusion

17 November 2012
Therese Donovan
Motivation Theories

There are quite a number of modern motivational theories that attempt to identify the key needs and concerns of people in the organization of motivation process. The most widespread of them are content and procedural theories. Content theories of motivation are based on the fact that the labor activity of workers due solely to the needs and focus on their identification. In turn, procedural theories of motivation are based on the fact that behavior of an individual is determined not only by a person’s needs, but also by the perception of the situation, expectations for the capacity, as well as the effects of the selected type of behavior, according to Motivation Theories: Individual Needs. It should be noted that Abraham Maslow recognized that people have many different needs and they could be divided into five main categories: ← Physiological needs – are necessary for survival. These needs include food, water, shelter, rest, and sexual needs.  ← Security needs – is the need to be protected from the physical and psychological dangers of the outside world and comfort of the existence. ← Social needs – sense of belonging to anything or anyone, the sense that you take the other, a sense of social interaction, affection and support. ← Esteem needs – usually includes the need for self-respect, personal achievement, competence, respect from others, recognition. ← Self-actualization – is the need to realize of potential and growth as a person, as well as self-expression and self-identification. As a fact, Maslow’s system is hierarchical, that is, the needs of the lower levels should be satisfied before the motivation will affect the needs of the higher levels, according to Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model. However, with the personal development a human expands its potential; the need for self-actualization can never be fully satisfied. Therefore, the process of motivating behavior through the needs is endless, according to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. In turn, the theory of Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler includes elements of expectations theory and the theory of justice. In their model, there are five featured variables: effort, perception, result, reward and satisfaction. According to Porter-Lawler model, the result depends on the employee application efforts, his abilities and characteristics, as well as awareness of his role. The effort level will be determined by the value of interest and confidence in the fact that the effort level does entail a definite level of remuneration. Achieving the required level of performance can result in internal rewards such as the satisfaction of done work, a sense of competence and self-esteem, as well as external rewards, such as praise leader bonus promotion. Complex theory of motivation L. Porter - E. Lawler. In 1968, L. Porter and E. Lawler had proposed a complex procedural theory of motivation, which contains elements of the theory and the theory of justice expectations. According to this theory, the results achieved by the employee depend on three variables: the effort, the ability of a person's character and awareness of its role in the labor process. The level of effort, in turn, depends on the value of interest and assesses the likelihood of relations efforts and rewarded. Achieving the desired results can lead to internal rewards of the satisfaction of the work performed, and external rewards - financial incentives, praise, career, etc. It is also believed that there may be a link between performance and...
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