Community and Family Studies - Preliminary Study Notes

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- Wellbeing is the condition or state of a human being, animal or plant. There are five types of wellbeing… * Physical wellbeing: This is a person’s physical condition, including their appearance and their internal health. * Socioemotional wellbeing: Social wellbeing involves a person’s relationships with others and how that person communicates, interacts and socialises. Emotional wellbeing relates to a person’s state of mind, emotions or mental health. * Economic wellbeing: This concerns the financial situation that a person finds themself in. Economic wellbeing (on both a personal level and a community level) is important in maintaining the other areas of wellbeing as most things require money. * Political wellbeing: Politics and the decisions of politicians can impact an individual either positively or negatively. Having a say through voting or protesting can improve a person’s political wellbeing. * Spiritual wellbeing: This relates to a person’s sense of morals, values and beliefs. A high level of spiritual wellbeing means that the person is able to develop their own sense of the world, without being influenced by society. Needs and Wants:

- Needs are those things that we require in order to feel part of society and achieve optimal wellbeing. There are three different ways in which you can classify needs… 1) There are two levels of needs. Primary needs are those needs that are essential for survival; for example, air and water. Secondary needs are those we require to achieve optimal wellbeing, but which we don’t need in order to survive; for example, housing and education. 2) Needs can be classified into five areas – social, physical, emotional, cultural, and spiritual. If optimal wellbeing is to be met, an individual must have met all of their needs. Certain needs will change over time and with different circumstances. 3) Psychologist, Abraham Maslow, developed a theory on how to classify needs and believed that for self-actualisation, or optimal wellbeing, to be achieved a person must satisfy their needs in a particular order. * Physiological (first level): These are the basic necessities for survival; for example, breathing, food, and sleep. * Safety (second level): These relate to a person feeling that they are free from harm and danger, and secure in their day-to-day life; for example, security of employment and security of health. * Social (third level): These are met through relationships with others; for example, a sense of belonging and sexual intimacy. * Esteem (fourth level): Examples of esteem needs include a person having high self-esteem and being recognised for their achievements. * Self-actualisation (top level): Maslow describes self-actualisation as a person’s need to do what they were “born to do”. It is characterised by periods of pleasure. - Wants are those things that we desire.

- A resource is anything an individual or group can use to survive, accomplish a task, or satisfy a need or want. They are anything that will help a person live their life. - Resources can be classified into various headings: economic, non-economic, human, non-human, formal, and informal. - Resources can also be classified according to their nature: finite, infinite, renewable, and non-renewable. - The availability of and access to a resource may be influenced by an individual’s age, disability, education, ethnicity/culture, gender, geographic location, and socioeconomic status. - Resources can also be interchangeable (that is, one resource can be exchanged for another) and sustainable. Effective resource management incorporates and utilises both. Values, Standards and Goals:

- Values are those things that an individual consider important in life. - Standards are the expectations that people place on themselves. Standards on how to act and behave will be affected by what a person values. - Goals can be…

* Short term:...
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