Psychology Behavior

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Motivation and Hunger
A. Perspectives on Motivation
1. Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior B. Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
2. Instinct: a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned 3. Human innate tendency such as infant’s rooting and sucking C. Drives and Incentives

4. Drive-reduction Theory: the idea that physiological need creates an aroused tensions state (a drive) that motives an organism to satisfy the need a) Drives the need of eating or drinking

b) When need increases so does drive
5. Homeostasis: tendency to maintain a constant internal state c) Goal of drive reduction
d) Regulation of body chemistry, such as glucose level 6. Incentive: a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior e) When there is a need and an incentive, we feel strongly driven D. Optimum Arousal

7. Arousal Theory: helps explain motivation for behaviors that reduce immediate physiological needs or tension states 8. Humans seek stimulation when biological needs are met f) Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal to met needs g) Over stimulation causes stress

E. A Hierarchy of Motives
9. Hierarchy of needs: Maslow’s pyramid of human needs; need to satisfy base needs before higher-level needs h) Physiological Needs: Need to satisfy hunger and thirst i) Safety Needs: Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable, need to feel safe, secure and stable j) Belongingness and Love Needs: Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, need to avoid loneliness and alienation k) Esteem Needs: Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others l)...
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