Needs Theories

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1. INTRODUCTION
Motivation is an important element in organizational learning due to its ability to enable employees to function effectively. There are several theories of motivation which can be useful to managers in motivating employees of organizations. You may ask yourself what motivation is. Well, motivation is that drive you have within you to get something done, what drives you to work as much as you do, for example, a student will want an A in a test, he will be motivated to study hard and achieve that A. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. Motivation stems from psychological factors within the person, but can also be induced by factors in the workplace. In human resource management it is essential to know how workers inputs via their task inputs and inputs via superiors can be conductive to worker effectiveness. Motivation is a process that involves the purposiveness of behaviour. Factors that have been shown by research include external and internal activators. In this assignment we will outline important motivation theories and how they are used in the workplace. Motivation theories seek to 2. MASLOWS HIERACHY OF NEEDS

Peoples’ needs are arranged according to its importance of human survival. Human needs may be placed in a hierarchy where the lowest level contains the most basic needs, which must be satisfied before the higher order needs emerge and become motivators of behaviour. The needs of the hierarchy are as follows, psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego/esteem needs and self-actualization needs. Psychological needs: These are the basic needs for a human which are essential for a human beings biological functioning and survival. Examples would be food, water and warmth. Employees who are adequately paid can provide for these needs. Safety needs: As soon as the psychological needs are satisfied, another level of needs emerge and the importance of the previous level of needs disappear. In this level a person looks for security, stability and a safe environment. Many employees’ most important need is job security; other security factors include increases in salary and benefits. Social needs: Once a person feels secure in their surroundings and are in control of possible threats, social needs are activated. These include the need for love, acceptance, friendship and a sense of belonging. At this level, employees desire social relationships inside and outside the organization. Peer group acceptance within the workplace is often an important psychological need for employees. Ego/esteem needs: These needs may be divided into two groups namely, self- respect and self-esteem, the respect and approval of others. Once employees form friendships the need for self-esteem becomes priority. Needs, such as self-confidence, independence, recognition, appreciation and achievement all fall under this level. Organizational factors such as job title, status items within the organization, such as parking spaces or office size and level of responsibility become important to the employee. Self- actualization: If all the above mentioned needs are largely satisfied, people than spend their time searching for opportunities to apply their skills to the best of their ability. Maslow describes the needs as the desire to become more and more what one is and to become everything one is capable of becoming. Self-actualization is the uninhibited expression of your true self and your talents. Employees seek challenging and creative jobs to achieve self-actualization. This theory has many implications for individual performance, the most common strategy being motivating people in terms of service benefits and job security. The work people do and the way the work environment is designed, increases interaction between employees which helps satisfy social needs. However, disadvantages pertaining to this may result in excessive socialization and may have a negative effect on the...
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