American psychologist Henry Murray (1893-1988) developed a theory of personality that was organized in terms of motives, presses, and needs. Murray described a needs as a, "potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances" (1938).
Theories of personality based upon needs and motives suggest that our personalities are a reflection of behaviors controlled by needs. While some needs are temporary and changing, other needs are more deeply seated in our nature. According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality. Murray's Types of Needs
Murray identified needs as one of two types:
1. Primary Needs
Primary needs are based upon biological demands, such as the need for oxygen, food, and water. 2. Secondary Needs
Secondary needs are generally psychological, such as the need for nurturing, independence, and achievement. List of Psychogenic Needs
The following is a partial list of 24 needs identified by Murray and his colleagues. According to Murray, all people have these needs, but each individual tends to have a certain level of each need. 1. Ambition Needs
* Achievement: Success, accomplishment, and overcoming obstacles. * Exhibition: Shocking or thrilling other people.
* Recognition: Displaying achievements and gaining social status. 2. Materialistic Needs
* Acquisition: Obtaining things.
* Construction: Creating things.
* Order: Making things neat and organized.
* Retention: Keeping things.
3. Power Needs
* Abasement: Confessing and apologizing.
* Autonomy: Independence and resistance.
* Aggression: Attacking or ridiculing others.
* Blame Avoidance: Following the rules and avoiding blame. * Deference: Obeying and cooperating with others.
* Dominance: Controlling others.
4. Affection Needs
* Affiliation: Spending time with other people.