Theories of Motivation
* A person’s state of alertness and mental and physical activation. Arousal Theory:
* People are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal. * The optimal level is different for all of us.
* Motives that cause us to increase stimulation.
* Appear to be unlearned,
* Curiosity, exploration, and play that occur when your arousal is too low. Yerkes-Dodson Law
* Principle that performance on a task is best when arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: * Higher arousal for simple tasks.
* Moderate arousal level for moderate tasks.
* Low arousal for difficult tasks.
* A condition in which sensory stimulation is reduced to a minimum or eliminated. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:
* This theory accounts for the range of human motivation. * Motives at each successive level must be satisfied before higher ones can be considered. * Physiological needs (for water, food, sleep, sex, and shelter) are satisfied before safety and security needs. Social Motives
* Motives acquired through experience and interaction with others. Need for achievement:
* Need to accomplish something difficult at a high standard of excellence. * Hope of success
* Fear of failure
* The motivation to avoid failure can cause us to work harder to achieve success. THEMATIC APPERCETION TEST (TAT):
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT):
* Projective test consisting of drawings of ambiguous human situations which the subject describes. * Reveals inner feelings, conflicts, and motives.
COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONS
* The physiological arousal that accompanies the emotion
* The way we perceive or interpret a stimulus or situation, determines our emotions. Behavioural Component:
* The outward expression of our emotions
* Facial expressions, gestures, body postures, and tone of voice. THEORIES OF EMOTIONS
* A feeling state involving physiological arousal.
* A cognitive appraisal of a situation arousing the state * An outward expression of a state.
* Physiological arousal appears before the emotion is perceived. Cannon-Bard Theory:
* Emotional arousal and physiological arousal occur simultaneously Schachter-singer Theory:
* The person first feels the physiological arousal, then makes a cognitive interpretation or assessment before labelling it as a specific emotion. Lazarus Theory:
* All aspects of the emotion depend on the person’s cognitive appraisal that occurs first. RANGE OF EMOTIONS
* Unlearned and universal emotions that are found in all cultures. * Fear, anger, disgust, surprise, joy or happiness, sadness or distress. DISPLAY RULES
* Cultural rules dictate how emotions should be expressed and where and when it is appropriate to do so. FACIAL FEEDBACK HYPOTHESIS
* The notion that muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce the corresponding emotion * E.g. smiling makes us happy.
Triangular theory of love:
* Sternberg’s theory that three components singly or in various combination produce seven different kinds of love. Consummate love:
* According to Sternberg’s theory the most complete form of love consisting of three components. Three components:
Sternberg’s 7 styles of Love
* Liking – intimacy
* Infatuate – passion
* Romantic – passion and intimacy
* Fatuous – passion and commitment
* Companionate – intimacy and commitment
The area of study that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviours of individuals...
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