Management and Organization Theory

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Management and Organization Theory
Management Theory
Views on management have changed substantially over the past century and particularly in the past few decades. As of today, in any business or organization, in order to accomplish desired goals and objectives, management is needed by getting people together to able to: * Planning - meeting goals, being ready for crises

* Staffing - recruiting, training
* Organizing - time management, team building
* Leading - communication, motivation, discipline
* Controlling - quality control - methods, productivity, people Definition of Management:
Look up the dictionary , “Management” (from Old French ménagement “the art of conducting, directing”, from Latin manu agere “to lead by the hand”) characterizes the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). Management can be described responsible for measuring details that may not be required presently, but may be useful later on. These measurements often help determine the objectives in the planning stage. When management is following this type of sequence, it becomes a continuing cycle. Plan, execute, and measure. The measurements become the basis for the next planning stage and so on. Management can also be described as the process of accomplishing work through the efforts of others. Skilled managers can accomplish much more through others than they can through their own single efforts. Objectives of Management:

* Ensuring organization goals and targets are met - least cost and minimum waste * Looking after health and welfare, safety of staff - the implications thereof * Protecting the machinery and resources, including the human resources Too many managers are promoted to their positions because they were technically expert in their chosen field, but now find themselves with little knowledge of the subject of management. More and more, that now involves less technical expertise and a concentration on: * Rapid decision making

* Conflict resolution and conciliation
* Managing staff to act voluntarily towards 'best practice' * Developing team performance
* Translating orders and instructions
* Reporting to hierarchy
Management consists of fourteen principles:
1. Division of work – work and tasks should be perform by people specialized in the work and similar tasks should be organized as a unit or department. 2. Authority – delegated persons ought to have the right to give orders and expect that they be followed. 3. Discipline – workers should be obedient and respectful of the organization 4. Unity of command – employees receive orders from one person with authority 5. Unity of direction – the organization and employees are dedicated to one plan of action or set of objectives 6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest – organizational conflict should be limited by the dominance of one objective 7. Remuneration – organization must recognize the economic value of employees and that their economic interests are important 8. Centralization – whether an organization should be centralized or decentralized depends upon such factors as communications and the importance of who should make the decision 9. Scalar chain – authority in an organization moves in a continuous chain of command from top to bottom 10. Order – everything, people and resources, has a place that it belongs 11. Equity – fairness is important in management-employee relations 12. Stability of tenure of personnel – turnover disruptive, shared experience 13. Initiative – Workers are exhorted to be productive and motivated 14. Esprit de corps – there is a need for harmony and unity within the organization History of Management Theory:

Scientific Management Theory (1890-1940)
At the turn of the...
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