Computer Architecture

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Computer architecture or digital computer organization is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It's a blueprint and functional description of requirements and design implementations for the various parts of a computer, focusing largely on the way by which the central processing unit (CPU) performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. It may also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals. System Design which includes all of the other hardware components within a computing system such as: 1.System interconnects such as computer buses and switches

2.Memory controllers and hierarchies
3.CPU off-load mechanisms such as direct memory access (DMA) 4.Issues like multiprocessing.
Computer architecture: the definition
The coordination of abstract levels of a processor under changing forces, involving design, measurement and evaluation. It also includes the overall fundamental working principle of the internal logical structure of a computer system. It can also be defined as the design of the task-performing part of computers, i.e. how various gates and transistors are interconnected and are caused to function per the instructions given by an assembly language programmer. Instruction set architecture

1.The ISA is the interface between the software and hardware. 2.It is the set of instructions that bridges the gap between high level languages and the hardware. 3.For a processor to understand a command, it should be in binary and not in High Level Language. The ISA encodes these values. 4.The ISA also defines the items in the computer that are available to a programmer. For example, it defines data types, registers, addressing modes, memory organization etc. 5.Register are high Addressing modes are the ways in which the instructions locate their operands. Memory organization defines how...
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