2.Memory controllers and hierarchies
3.CPU off-load mechanisms such as direct memory access (DMA) 4.Issues like multiprocessing.
Computer architecture: the definition
The coordination of abstract levels of a processor under changing forces, involving design, measurement and evaluation. It also includes the overall fundamental working principle of the internal logical structure of a computer system. It can also be defined as the design of the task-performing part of computers, i.e. how various gates and transistors are interconnected and are caused to function per the instructions given by an assembly language programmer. Instruction set architecture
1.The ISA is the interface between the software and hardware. 2.It is the set of instructions that bridges the gap between high level languages and the hardware. 3.For a processor to understand a command, it should be in binary and not in High Level Language. The ISA encodes these values. 4.The ISA also defines the items in the computer that are available to a programmer. For example, it defines data types, registers, addressing modes, memory organization etc. 5.Register are high Addressing modes are the ways in which the instructions locate their operands. Memory organization defines how...