3.1Processor-memory: Data may be transferred from processor to memory or from memory to processor. Processor-I/O: Data may be transferred to or from a peripheral device by transferring between the processor and an I/O module. Data processing: The processor may perform some arithmetic or logic operation on data. Control: An instruction may specify that the sequence of execution be altered.
3.2Instruction address calculation (iac): Determine the address of the next instruction to be executed. Instruction fetch (if): Read instruction from its memory location into the processor. Instruction operation decoding (iod): Analyze instruction to determine type of operation to be performed and operand(s) to be used. Operand address calculation (oac): If the operation involves reference to an operand in memory or available via I/O, then determine the address of the operand. Operand fetch (of): Fetch the operand from memory or read it in from I/O. Data operation (do): Perform the operation indicated in the instruction. Operand store (os): Write the result into memory or out to I/O.
3.3(1) Disable all interrupts while an interrupt is being processed. (2) Define priorities for interrupts and to allow an interrupt of higher priority to cause a lower-priority interrupt handler to be itself interrupted.
3.4Memory to processor: The processor reads an instruction or a unit of data from memory. Processor to memory: The processor writes a unit of data to memory. I/O to processor: The processor reads data from an I/O device via an I/O module. Processor to I/O: The processor sends data to the I/O device. I/O to or from memory: For these two cases, an I/O module is allowed to exchange data directly with memory, without going through the processor, using direct memory access (DMA).
3.5With multiple buses, there are fewer devices per bus. This...