Egypt Economy

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Egypt’s economic policy during 2004-2008 is best described as a command economy due to the government’s involvement in the process of reforming economic policies that were hindering the country ability to grow economically. The government’s involvement did help boost the growth rate by liberalizing trade. Egypt reduced the tariffs, tax cuts, deregulation, and made changes in investment regulations to fuel their economic growth. Eventually, with these changes Egypt saw great economic growth. Big name companies like Oracle and Microsoft built new office buildings and construction could be seen throughout the country. The reformed economic policies definitely helped boost Egypt’s growth rate as it provided more jobs and allowed outside businesses to operate within the country.

Egypt’s economy was very vulnerable during the economic slowdown in global economic activity. The significant differences in economic status, combined with their heavy dependence on tourism and construction makes Egypt vulnerable during an economic slowdown. Although, Egypt saw much success after reforming there economic policies it didn’t completely solve all of Egypt’s economic crises. Inflation still remained high combined with the global economic crisis that affected all countries caused Egypt’s economic growth to slow down. Tourism bought some money to the country but declined greatly the following year. Many workers who worked abroad and sent money back home suffered as well as jobs in the Gulf Coast were cut backed or shutdown. Also, the large gap between the rich and poor is also a major factor in there high inflation rate

CHAPTER –II

INTRODUCTION TO MICROPROCESSORS
AND MICROCOMPUTERS

MICROPROCESSOR

A Microprocessor is a multipurpose, Programmable clock-driven, register based electronic device that read binary instruction from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions and provides results as outputs.

A Microprocessor is a clock driven semiconductor device consisting of electronic circuits manufactured by using either a LSI or VLSI technique.

A typical programmable machine can be represented with three components : MPU,Memory and I/O as shown in Figure

Figure: A Programmable Machine

These three components work together or interact with each other to perform a given task; thus they comprise a system

The machine (system) represented in above figure can be programmed to turn traffic lights on and off, compute mathematical functions, or keep trace of guidance system.

This system may be simple or sophisticated, depending on its applications.

The MPU applications are classified primarily in two categories : reprogrammable systems and embedded systems

In reprogrammable systems, such as Microcomputers, the MPU is used for computing and data processing.

In embedded systems, the microprocessor is a part of a final product and is not available for reprogramming to end user.

MICROCOMPUTER
As the name implies, Microcomputers are small computers

They range from small controllers that work directly with 4-bit words to larger units that work directly with 32-bit words

Some of the more powerful Microcomputers have all or most of the features of earlier minicomputers.

Examples of Microcomputers are Intel 8051 controller-a single board computer, IBM PC and Apple Macintosh computer.

MICRO CONTROLLER

Single-chip Microcomputers are also known as Microcontrollers.

They are used primarily to perform dedicated functions.

They are used primarily to perform dedicated functions or as slaves in distributed processing.

Generally they include all the essential elements of a computer on a single chip: MPU,R/W memory, ROM and I/O lines.

Typical examples of the single-chip microcomputers are the Intel 8051, AT89C51, AT89C52 and...
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