Academic Performance

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Action Research Proposal 1

Course: Classroom Action Research

Proposal Topic: To determine the use of token economy strategy on the academic performance of grade nine Chemistry students.

Proposal Topic

To determine the use of token economy strategy on the academic performance of grade nine chemistry students.

Research Questions
1. What area of the Chemistry syllabus is more challenging for grade nine Chemistry students?

2. Does punctuality has to do with student’s under performance in chemistry?

Introduction
This action research proposal is to determine the use of token economy strategy on the academic performance of grade nine chemistry students. Grade nine students mostly range from ages 14-15. Grade nine students are always required to do various subjects from all areas. I have noticed the level of under performance in Chemistry, so it came to my attention that there must be away to find out the real reason for this under performance and a suitable solution to solve this problem. I have decided to visit a prominent high school in the cooperate area to carry out a survey to find out the real reason underlying such problem. The school name will not be mentioned.

Any problem or issue that is causing students to underperform can be rectified. So, I had chosen to use the token economy strategy to get to the students, to see if their performance level would build up. According to Ayllon, Teodoro 1999, token economy is a form of behavior modification designed to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior with the use of tokens. Individuals receive tokens immediately after displaying desirable behavior. The tokens are collected and later exchanged for a meaningful object or privilege.

So in this proposal, I will find out the main reasons for students underperformance in chemistry, I will also find out if token economy will be suitable or effective to make some changes in students underperformance. The chemistry syllabus will be taken into consideration and also punctuality of grade nine chemistry students.

Definition of terms
1. Token economy- token economy is a form of behavior modification designed to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior with the use of tokens. (Ayllon, Teodoro 1999). 2. Underperformance-

Literature Review
Teodoro Ayllon 1999 stated that token economies as they are thought of with regard to motivating behavior modification were first used in formalized studies starting back in the 1960’s. He worked with mental health institutions and prisons to test these systems with great success in changing behavior. These models have evolved over time and are regularly taught in psychology and early education classes. Token economies are used in many environments from schools to individual households. Higgins, Stephen T. and Kenneth Silverman 1999 postulate that the primary goal of a token economy is to increase desirable behavior and decrease undesirable behavior. Often token economies are used in institutional settings (such as psychiatric hospitals or correctional facilities) to manage the behavior of individuals who may be aggressive or unpredictable. However, the larger goal of token economies is to teach appropriate behavior and social skills that can be used in one's natural environment. Token economies can be used individually or in groups. Martin, Garry 1999, claimed that several elements are necessary in every token economy. Anything that is visible and countable can be used as a token. Tokens should preferably be attractive, easy to carry and dispense, and difficult to counterfeit. Commonly used items include poker chips, stickers, point tallies, or play money. When an individual displays desirable behavior, he or she is immediately given a designated number of tokens. Tokens have no value of their own. They are collected and later exchanged for meaningful objects, privileges or activities. Individuals can also...
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