In adaptation, the translator works on changing the content and the form of the ST in a way that conforms to the rules of the language and culture in the TL community. In general, this procedure is used as an effective way to deal with culturally-bound words/expressions, metaphors and images in translation. That is, the translator resorts to rewriting the SLT according to the characteristics of the TLT. Monia Bayar (2007) argues that adaptation is based on three main procedures: cultural substitution, paraphrase and omission.
Cultural substitution refers to the case where the translator uses equivalent words that are ready-made in the TL, and serve the same goal as those of the SL. In other words, the translator substitutes cultural words of the SL by cultural words of the TL. An example of cultural substitution is clearly seen in the translation of these proverbs:
Tel père, tel fils - هذا الشبل من ذاك الأسد.
She is innocent as an egg - elle est innocente comme un agneau.
In these two examples, we notice that the translators substitute the STs by expressions which are culturally specific in the TL. For instance, the last example uses the term ‘agneau’ as a cultural equivalent for the word ‘egg’, since the latter conveys a bad connotation, which is imbecility, as in the example "ne fait pas l'oeuf" = "ne fait pas l'imbécile" (G. Hardin & C. Picot, 1990). Yet, if the translator cannot find a cultural specific expression that substitutes the cultural expression of the SL, he should resort to paraphrase.
Paraphrase as another procedure of adaptation aims to surpass all cultural barriers that the ST may present. This procedure is based on explanations, additions and change in words order. For instance, the English metaphor "he is a ship without compass" has no cultural equivalent expression in Arabic, thus, the saying could be translated as "انه يعيش في عالم من الضياع لا موجه له فيه ". Actually, paraphrase is not only used in...
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