Plants Study Guide

Topics: Plant stem, Plant anatomy, Plant physiology Pages: 6 (828 words) Published: March 22, 2015
Plants Study GuideAllison Henry G1
Charophyceans (green algae)- closest relatives of land plant 4 Shared Traits
1. Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis
2. Peroxisome enzymes
3. Structure of flagellated sperm
4. Formation of phragmoplast
a. Group of microtubules that form between daughter nuclei during division of cells Adaptations
In charophyceans- layer of sporopollenin prevents exposed zygotes from drying out Allows plants to live further from water
Derived Traits of Plants (5)
1. Apical meristems (elongate shoots and roots through primary growth) 2. Alternation of generations (multicellular diploid sporophyte-meiosis-haploid spores-divide mitotically-multicellular haploid gametophyte) a. Fertilization of haploid gametes=diploid zygote

b. Diploid zygote=sporophyte generation
c. Sporophyte generation=gametophyte; gametophyte generation=sporophyte 3. Walled spores produced in sporangia
4. Multicellular gametangia
5. Multicellular dependent embryos
Byrophytes (moss) - form from ground-hugging carpets; at most only a few cells thick
*absence of vascular tissue, cannot support tall plant growth Sporophytes – seedless vascular plants
Vascular plants:
Two types of vascular tissue:
1. Xylem (conducts water and minerals; includes dead cells called tracheids) 2. Phloem (distributes sugars, amino acids, other organic products; consists of living cells) Leaves:
Microphylls- leaves w/single veins
Megaphylls- leaves w/ highly branched vascular system

Seeds - Reduced gametophytes protected in ovules and pollen grains Advantages:
1. Develop w/in walls of spores
2. Protected from UV radiation & protect against drying out
3. Obtain nutrients from parent
Gymnosperms – bear naked seeds, typically on cones (appeared early in the fossil record) Angiosperms – include fruit and flowers
Flowers – angiosperm structures, specialized for sexual reproduction Sepals – enclose the flower
Petals – attract pollinators
Stamens – produce pollen
Carpels – produce ovules
Fruits – typically consist of mature ovary; carried by wind, water, animals to new locations for dispersal Monocots vs Dicots
One cotyledon
Veins usually parallel
Vascular tissue scattered
Fibrous root system
Floral organs in multiples of 3
Two cotyledons
Veins usually netlike
Vascular tissue arranged in ring
Taproot (main root) present
Floral organs in multiples of 4 or 5
Plant Structure
* Hierarchy or organs, tissues, and cells
Three Basic Organs
1. Roots
2. Stems
3. Leaves
*organized into a root and shoot system
Anchor vascular plants
Store organic nutrients
Absorb minerals and water
* absorption occurs near the root tip; root hairs increase surface area for absorption Stems:
Alternating system of nodes (points where leaves are attached) Internodes – the stem segments between nodes
Auxiliary bud – structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch Terminal bud – located near root tip; causes elongation of a young shoot Three Tissue Systems:
1. Dermal
i. Epidermis and periderm
ii. Protective; decreases water loss, UV protection
2. Vascular tissue
i. Carries out long distance transport of materials between roots and shoots ii. Xylem and phloem
3. Ground tissue
i. Various cells specialized for functions (storage, photosynthesis, support) Major Types of Cells:
1. Parenchyma
i. Walls that are thin and flexible
ii. Large central vacuole
iii. Synthesize and store organic products
iv. Repair injuries
2. Collenchyma cells
i. Support young parts of the plant shoot
ii. Unevenly thicker walls
iii. Flexible support shoot w/o restraining growth
3. Schlerenchyma cells
i. Rigid support forming secondary wall
ii. Strengthened by lignin
iii. Found in areas of plant that are not growing
iv. Form plant-like skeleton
Apical – elongates shoots and roots through primary growth Primary growth of roots – root tip covered by root cap, protects...
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