AP Biology Study Guide

Topics: Enzyme inhibitor, Metabolism, Chemical bond Pages: 2 (455 words) Published: October 8, 2014
Properties of water (+H-O+O)
1. Polar Molecule-Opposite ends attract
2. High Heat Capacity-Bonds break at high temp
3. Cohesive- Water attracts water
4. Solvent- Ability to dissolve
5. Water less dense as solid than water
*Hydrogen Bond- Holds 2 molecules of water 2Geather
*Covalent Bond- Holds H & O atoms 2Geather
Macromolecules:
1. Carbohydrates (Grains)
Monomer-Monosaccharide
3 Subs- Glucose, Glycogen, Starch
-Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen
2. Protein (Polypeptide) (Red Meats)
Monomer- Amino Acid
-Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen & Carbon
(Amino Acids & Sulfur)
Functions- Energy, Hormones & Enzymes
Antibody- Blood Protein helps clean blood stream
Hormone Glands-Pineal, Pituitary, Thyroid,
Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovary, Testy
3. Lipids -Stores Energy (Dairy)
Monomer- Glycerol, Fatty Acids
-Carbon, Hydrogen & Oxygen
-Made up of-Oils, Waxes, Steroids, Phospholipids
-Found in Cell Membrane
-Lipid Based Steroid- Cholesterol
-Unsaturated-Better 4 hearts/ Double Bond
-Saturated-Bad 4 Heart/ Single Bond
4. Nucleic Acid (2 Types-DNA&RNA)
Monomer- Nucleotide
-Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Function- Make up genetic info in cells
DNA-dAMP, dCMP, dGMP
RNA-AMP, CMP, GMP
Held together by Hydrogen Bonds
A: T=2 Hydrogen Bonds & G: C=3
[James Watson & Francis Crick
Thanks to data collected by Rosalind]
Nucleotide:

Nucleotide ATP:

Purines: 2 ringed structure A: G
Phyrimindines: 1ringed structure T: C
5. Enzymes (Protein)
-Movement of a molecule is affected by heat
-Function of an enzyme is to breakdown
-Parts of enzyme: Active site-substrate meets here.
-Lock & Key: When substrates fits active site, the
Function works better like a lock and key.
-Cofactor: Chemical Compound required for
An enzymes biological activity
-Substrate: Subject on which an enzyme acts
-Induced Fit: Use active site on an substrate
That is not an exact fit.
-Denature: Destroys characteristics of a protein
(By heat or acidity)...
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