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Biology 101 Study Guide

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Topics: DNA
The process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells is called * cytokinesis.

Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase? * interphase

Chromatin, the stuff chromosomes are made of, is made up of what? * protein and DNA

Which of the following occurs during interphase? * cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes

The cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends. It sort of looks like the number 8! Then you realize, this is a cell * Undergoing cytokinesis.
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane located equidistant * Metaphase

Which one of the following does not occur during mitotic anaphase? * The chromatid DNA replicates.

Nucleotides * Contain nitrogenous bases. * Contain sugar molecules. * Contain phosphate groups. * Can be linked together to form nucleic acids. * All of the choices are correct.

DNA differs from RNA because DNA * contains thymine in place of uracil

Genetic information is encoded in the * sequence of nucleotides in DNA

The transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA is called * Transcription

We would expect that a 36-nucleotide sequence will direct the production of a polypeptide that consists of * 12 amino acids

The directions for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of
__________ nucleotide(s) in an RNA molecule. * 3

A base substitution mutation in a gene sometimes does not result in a different protein.
Which of the following factors could account for this? * some amino acids are produced from more than one codon

Translation consists of which of the following? * the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins What type of bonds hold the two strands of a DNA double helix together? * Hydrogen

Which nucleotides (abbreviated by their bases) pair? * A with T, G with C

A dihybrid cross is * a breeding experiment in which the parental varieties differ in only two traits

The ribosome is * an organelle in the cytoplasm that directs protein production

tRNA * is an RNA molecule to which specific amino acids can attach.

rRNA * is a major structural component of the ribosome

mRNA * is the genetic transcript that is translated into a protein

Amino acid sequence of a protein is that protein’s * Primary structure

The mitotic spindle directs the * movement and segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis

A cell that goes through 1 round of the cell cycle without recognizing the proper signal to enter cytokinesis will * have 2 nuclei

A cell that goes through 4 rounds of the cell cycle without recognizing the proper signals to enter cytokinesis (i.e., no cytokinesis has occurred) will * have 16 nuclei

The genetic code is the set of codons that * determine how DNA or mRNA sequences are ultimately translated into amino acid sequences. The enzyme involved with DNA polymerization is * DNA polymerase

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