Biology Study Guide

Topics: DNA, DNA replication, Gene Pages: 9 (1905 words) Published: April 19, 2013
These questions were assembled from a variety of sources over the past 3 years. While it is not possible to thank everyone I would like to acknowledge the TAs and the study leaders for residence students. Some questions are simple but all are meant to help your organize your studying NOT to provide answers. Study in a group to test each other. For T,F or multiple choice questions or short answer questions: once you have answered, provide a short explanation of your reasoning.


What are the main differences between DNA and RNA?

The fact that some viruses use DNA to direct their heredity was demonstrated by: a. Finding radioactive sulfur from a bacteriophage in a bacterium b. Finding radioactive phosphorus from a bacterium in a bacteriophage c. Finding that radioactive phosphorus from a bacteriophage had mutated in bacterium d. Finding radioactive phosphorus from a bacteriophage in a bacterium e. Finding radioactive sulfur from a bacterium in a bacteriophage

The identification of the transforming principle proved that: a. Dead bacteria are as lethal as live ones
b. Streptococcus pneumonia evolved from Pneumococcus
c. Genetic information is contained in DNA
d. There is no protein in chromosomes
e. Genetic information was transmitted by a polysaccharide

True/False questions:
1. A DNA molecule has the same amount of adenine and thymine.

2. The process of acquiring a gene from another organism is called transformation.

3. The Hershey-Chase experiment showed that the virus protein is responsible for directing the production of new viruses.

4. The two sides of the double helix structure of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds.

5. DNA replication is called semiconservative because half of each of the two new strands of DNA is “old” DNA from the original DNA molecule and half is the “new” DNA.

Unit 1-2: Chromatin the Dynamic Structure

Describe the bacterial chromosome. Describe the eukaryotic chromosome. How are the different/ similar?

Where is chromatin found? What does it form during nuclear division? What does “chromatin remodelling” do?

What is the “Histone Code”? What is the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin?

Unit 2: Information flow Replication

What are the basic enzymes involved in DNA replication and what does each one do?

Describe how both the lagging and leading strands are replicated. Which one is continuous? Which one is discontinuous?

Telomeres solve a major problem in DNA synthesis. How do they function and what problem do they solve?

Some organisms do not have telomeres. Why not?

What are some of the mechanisms that correct errors in replication/DNA damage?

Polymerase III is actually a complex containing
a. -Catalytic subunits
b. -Proofreading subunits
c. -“sliding clamp” subunits
d. -All of the above

Since the first nucleotides cannot be linked in a newly synthesize strand in DNA replication, __________ is required a. -a DNA primer
b. -DNA polymerase
c. -ligase
d. -an RNA primer
e. -helicase
f. -a DNA or RNA primer

Okazaki fragments are used to elongate
a. -the leading strand toward the replication fork
b. -the lagging strand toward the replication fork
c. -both strands in both directions
d. -the leading strand away from the replication fork
e. -the lagging strand away from the replication fork

Each individual zone of a chromosome replicates as a discrete section called a. Telomere
b. Euchromatin
c. Okazaki fragment
d. replication unit
e. linker DNA

In replication of DNA, the helix is opened and untwisted by
a. Ribase
b. Ligase
c. Deoxase
d. Helicase
e. Polymerase

Unit 2: Information flow Transcription
What is the difference between transcription and translation?

Why is it so important to have a variety of RNA...
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