Chapter 1. Types and components of computer systems
Hardware is a general term for the physical components that make up a computer system. Software is a general term for the programs that control the computer system. Systems software are programs that allow the hardware to run properly, e.g. operating systems. Applications software are programs that allow the user to do specific tasks, e.g. spreadsheets. The central processing unit (CPU) interprets and executes the commands from the hardware and software, it used to be made up of numerous small integrated circuits. Microprocessor is now used instead of CPU because it’s a single integrated circuit. It’s the heart of PC’s and devices were control is needed. The internal hard disk/drive is the main memory, the applications software, disk operating system and data files are stored. Fast data transfer/access times and large capacity. Random access memory (RAM) is an internal chip where data is temporarily stored when running apps, can be written or read, it’s volatile or temporary. Read only memory (ROM) is used to store permanent information, never lost, e.g. configuration data. It contains the boot files, the BIOS (basic input/output system) checks if all the hardware devices are present and if they function, it loads the operating system into the RAM, it stores the system configuration into the CMBOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) a non-volatile chip battery powered. Operating systems allow users to communicate with computer systems: user interface. Function: control the operation of the input, output and backing storage devices; supervise the loading, running and storage of application programs; deal with error in app programs; maintain security of the computer system; maintain a computer log; allow communication between user and computer system (user interface). Command line interfaces (CLIs) require a user to type in instructions. User has to learn commands and it’s slow. User is in direct...
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