eGraphical user interface
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"GUI" redirects here. For other uses, see GUI (disambiguation).
A screenshot of the GNOME Shell GUI.
The Xerox Alto was the first device to use a graphical user interface. In computing, graphical user interface (GUI, sometimes pronounced 'gooey') is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLI), which require commands to be typed on the keyboard. The actions in GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Besides in computers, GUIs can be found in hand-held devices such as MP3 players, portable media players, gaming devices, household appliances, office, and industry equipment. The term GUI is usually not applied to other low-resolution types of interfaces with display resolutions, such as video games (where HUD is preferred), or not restricted to flat screens, like volumetric displays because the term is restricted to the scope of two-dimensional display screens able to describe generic information, in the tradition of the computer science research at the PARC (Palo Alto Research Center). Contents
* 1 History
* 1.1 Precursors
* 1.2 PARC user interface
* 1.3 Evolution
* 2 Components
* 3 Post-WIMP interfaces
* 4 User interface and interaction design
* 5 Comparison to other interfaces
* 5.1 Command-line interfaces
* 6 Three-dimensional user interfaces
* 6.1 Technologies
* 6.2 In science fiction
* 7 See also
* 8 References
* 9 External links
An early-1990s style Unix desktop running the X Window System graphical user interface Main article: History of the graphical user interface
A precursor to GUIs was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research Institute, led by Douglas Engelbart. They developed the use of text-based hyperlinks manipulated with a mouse for the On-Line System (NLS). The concept of hyperlinks was further refined and extended to graphics by researchers at Xerox PARC and specifically Alan Kay, who went beyond text-based hyperlinks and used a GUI as the primary interface for the Xerox Alto computer. Most modern general-purpose GUIs are derived from this system. Ivan Sutherland developed a pointer-based system called the Sketchpad in 1963 . It used a light-pen to guide the creation and manipulation of objects in engineering drawings. PARC user interface
The PARC user interface consisted of graphical elements such as windows, menus, radio buttons, check boxes and icons. The PARC user interface employs a pointing device in addition to a keyboard. These aspects can be emphasized by using the alternative acronym WIMP, which stands for windows, icons, menus and pointing device. Evolution
The Xerox Star Workstation introduced the first commercial GUI O>S as shown above. Following PARC the first GUI-centric computer operating model was the Xerox 8010 Star Information System in 1981, followed by the Apple Lisa (which presented the concept of menu bar as well as window controls) in 1983, the Apple Macintosh 128K in 1984, and the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga in 1985. The early GUI commands, until the advent of IBM Common User Access,  used different command sequences for different programs. A command like the F3 function key activated help in WordPerfect, but exited an IBM program. The menus were accessed by different keys (control in WordStar, Alt or F10 in Microsoft programs, "/" in Lotus 1-2-3, F9 in Norton Commander to name a few common ones). To this end, the early software came with keyboard overlays. These are plastic or wooden masks which sit over the...
References: 2. ^ Martinez, W. L. (2011), Graphical user interfaces. WIREs Comp Stat, 3: 119–133. doi: 10.1002/wics.150
6. ^ Greg Wilson (2006). "Off With Their HUDs!: Rethinking the Heads-Up Display in Console Game Design". Gamasutra. Retrieved February 14, 2006.
7. ^ "GUI definition". Linux Information Project. October 1, 2004. Retrieved 12 November 2008.
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