PROJECT SCENARIO:Garbage Dumps - One day they are all going to blow on our faces.. TEAM MEMBERS:
Prof.D.Muthu(Department of civil engineering)
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
2) What Is Waste?
3) Garbage Dumps -A Major Global Issue
4) First Scenario:India
i)Plastic Wastes (Problem and Solution For Eradication) ii)E-Waste(Problema and Solution)
D)New Tech:Plasma Gasification:
E)On Going Projects For Wastes Management:
i)Landfill Mining Project All Over India.
ii)Recycling Based On Priorities
5)Second Scenario:Tamil Nadu
B)On Going Project:
i)Zero Waste Management-Vellore.
ii)Garbage Disposal System -Vallam Near Thanjavur
6)Third Scenario:Our College(Sastra)
B) Detailed Study And Disposal / Sewage / Sullage Generated In Sastra :- C)Ongoing Project:
i)Go Green 2020
8)Responsibilities Of Each Citizen.
9)What Can We Do?
As India is the second highest populated country in the world, the system of garbage disposal plays a vital role. We would like to project various garbage disposals which contains hazardous materials. We have taken our college as one of the scenarios where all types of garbage disposal techniques / methods are implemented. Apart from this, we also deal this problem in general with a new technologies being discovered and put into action, according to the government acts(law) / new waste management policy. "Ever-mounting glut of waste materials is characteristics by-product of modern "Consumer Society" - STUART EWEN. So let us deal elaborately about the waste management.
2)WHAT IS WASTE ?
1. Many environmentalists have defined/described that the definition of waste rely on their prespective views. 2. Generally ,we define wastes as the unwanted or undesirable materials collected from garbage,trash,industries,home,litters etc. 3) GARBAGE DUMPS -A MAJOR GLOBAL ISSUE :
The garbage dumps contains the following charcteristics: a)Corrosiveness: these are wastes that include acids or bases that are capable of corroding mental containers. e.g. tanks.
b)Ignitability: this is waste that can create fires under certain condition. e.g. waste oils and solvents.
1. Reactivity: these are unstable in nature, they cause explosions, toxic fumes when heated. 2. Toxicity: waste which are harmful or fatal when ingested or absorb. These characteristics cause harmful environmental and health issues. Therefore, it is necessary to deal with garbage dumps at the initial stages to prevent their consequences. Impacts of solid waste on Environment:
1. Waste breaks down in landfills form methane, a potent greenhouse gas. 2. Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable Littering, due to waste pollutions, illegal dumping and leaching etc,. Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. Why reduce solid wastes?
* Three fourth of the materials that are collected are considered to be an unnecessary waste of the earth's resources. * Huge amounts of air pollution, greenhouse gases, and water pollution cause health and mental imbalance . 4)FIRST SCENARIO - INDIA
INDIA BECOMING A GARBAGE DISPOSAL DUMP:
1. The stench and the ugly sight of garbage disposals on the roadside. 2. The wastes overflowing from drains or floating on the surface of rivers is common in India.
Indian garbage stands at 0.2 to 0.6kg of garbage per head/day. India's per capita waste generation is so high. People in India also litter excessively. Solid Waste Policy in India was framed in september 2000 based on the report of committee for solid waste management framed in march 1999. It recommends that cities should provide free waste collection for all slums and public areas. The supreme court intends to monitor compliance with the Municipality Solid Waste (MSW) rules through the High Courts in each state. This gives opportunity as well as obligation for all citizens to ensure that hygienic water management becomes a reality source. A)TYPES OF WASTES:
Non Hazardous waste:
Non hazardous wastes consists of materials like refuse, garbage, sludge, municipal trash etc that are being used in our day to day life in our homes,schools,colleges,office etc, that do not emit any harmful radiations that leads to major health problem such as cancer. Hazardous waste:
Hazardous waste contains solvents acid, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemical sludges which are disposed from textile industries,factories,chemical producing companies .These waste disposal area will be situated away from the cities or towns since it has lots of radioactive substances even when they are recycled. Radioactive waste:
A solid waste that is normally unstable, reacts violently with water, or generates toxic gases when exposed to water or other materials. Mixed waste:
Mixed waste is a combination of both hazardous and non-hazardous waste such as Radioactive organic liquids, radio active heavy metals. B)WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS:
In landfill disposal method , waste is placed into or onto the land site where the waste is generally spread in thin layers, compacted, and covered with a fresh layer of soil each day. A landfill waste disposal site that is located with or without regard to possible pollution of groundwater and surface water from run-off and leaching. Underground injection wells:
The collected waste are injected under pressure into a steel and concrete-encased shafts placed deep in the earth. Waste piles:
Waste piles is an accumulations of insoluble solid, non flowing hazard waste. Waste Piles serves as temporary or final disposal. BIOREMEDIATION -IMPROVISED METHOD:
Bioremediation with respect to MSW landfills can be defined as a “cleanup” technology employing biological options, generally bacteria to stabilize land filled organic wastes through aerobic decomposition. The utility in such stabilization is:
1. Avoidance of anaerobic digestion of organics and resultant methane emissions. 2. Avoidance of leaching and resultant water pollution.
3. Value addition to land filled MSW by making it easier to mine them (for landfill mining). Bioremediation of landfills can also be used to help landfill mining. In this process which is very similar to windrow composting, bacterial slurry is sprayed on mixed waste and the heaps are turned regularly to produce compost which can then be mined. MSW over a hectare of land in Gorai dumpsite was stabilized/bio-remediated and the compost formed was mined along with recovery of recyclables. 9 m tall waste beds over this area were cleared in 3 months with low investment and infrastructure which is affordable by most Class I and Class II cities in India. LANDFILL MINING AND BIOREMEDIATION OF LANDFILLS-COMPARISON:
Landfill mining and bioremediation are very similar to each other and both are related to microbial digestion of organic wastes. The only difference is landfill mining is carried out after natural decomposition of organic wastes in a landfill and bioremediation is carried out by humans to accelerate the decomposition process. C)WASTE TREATMENT METHODS:
Incineration is a key process in the treatment of hazardous wastes and clinical wastes. It is often imperative that medical waste is subjected to the high temperatures of incineration to destroy pathogens and toxic contamination it contains. b)Solidification:
Solid waste are melted or evaporated to produce a sand like residue. c)Heat treatment: Heat applied at moderate temperature, is used in treating volatile solvents. d)Chemical treatment: is the application of chemical treatment in the treatment of corrosive solid. UPCOMING PROBLEMS:
According to the statistics of plastics production, more than 100 million tonnes of plastics is produced every year all over the world. Among that, 2 million tonnes are being produced in India.
In India, use of plastics is 2kg/person per year. But it is comparatively low when compared to other countries. Where as in European countries, it is 60kg/person. While in USA, it is 80kg/person per year.
Plastics thrown on land can enter into drainage lines and chokes them resulting into floods, in local areas in the cities. Plastic is one of the chemical materials which cause environmental problems. B)PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Disposal of plastic waste is a serious concern in India. New technologies have been developed to minimize their adverse effect on the environment. Currently worldwide accepted technology used for the plastic disposal is incineration. However, the incinerators designed poorly, releases extremely toxic compounds (chlorinated dioxins and furans) therefore, facing strong opposition from various non-government organizations .
PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT
C) PLASTIC ERADICATION:
To solve that problems, the following solutions are need to be put into action in the everyday life: 1. Use paper bags instead of plastics.
2. Use biodegradable plastics.
3. Recycle the plastic wastes.
Disposal of e-wastes is a particular problem faced in many regions across the globe. E-wastes are considered dangerous, as certain components of some electronic products contain materials that are hazardous, depending on their condition and density. The hazardous content of these materials pose a threat to human health and environment. Discarded computers, televisions, VCR’s, stereos, copiers, fax machines, electric lamps, cell phones, audio equipment and batteries if improperly disposed can leach lead and other substances into soil and groundwater. Many of these products can be reused, refurbished, or recycled in an environmentally sound manner so that they are less harmful to the ecosystem. MANAGEMENT OF E-WASTES:
It is estimated that 75% of electronic items are stored due to uncertainty of how to manage it. These electronic junks lie unattended in houses, offices, warehouses etc, and normally mixed with household wastes, which are finally disposed off at landfills. This necessitates implementable management measures. In industries, management of e-waste should begin at the point of generation. This can be done by waste minimization techniques and by sustainable product design.
Waste minimization in industries involves adopting:
1) Developing review procedures for all material purchased is the first step in establishing an inventory management program. 2) Another inventory management procedure for waste reduction is to ensure that only the needed quantity of a material is ordered. Production-process modification:
1) Potential waste minimization techniques can be broken down into three categories: 1. Improved operating and maintenance procedures
2. Material change and
3. Process-equipment modification.
2) Volume reduction:
Volume reduction includes 2 techniques:
a) source segregation.
b) Waste concentration.
Recovery and reuse:
1) A number of physical and chemical techniques are available to reclaim a waste material such as reverse osmosis, electrolysis, condensation, electrolytic recovery, filtration, centrifugation etc. 2) For example, a printed-circuit board manufacturer can use electrolytic recovery to reclaim metals from copper and tin-lead plating bath.
EFFECTS OF E-WASTE CONSTITUENT ON HEALTH
SOURCES OF E-WASTE| CONSTITUENT| EFFECTS|
Chip resistors and semiconductors| Cadmium(CD)| Toxic irreversible effects on human health.Accumulates in kidney and liver.Causes neural damage.Teratogenic.| Relays and switches, printed circuit boards| Mercury (Hg)| Chronic damage to the brainRespiratory and skin disorders due to bioaccumulation in fishes.| Cabling and computer housing| Plastics including PVC| Burning produces dioxin. It causes Reproductive and developmental problemsImmune system damageInterfere with regulatory hormones.|
D) NEW TECHNOLOGY: PLASMA GASIFICATION:
1) The use of Plasma Gasification to large scale solid Waste Disposal is new. Plasma gasification of municipal solid waste is a fairly new application that combines well-established sub-systems into one new system. The subsystems are waste processing and sorting, plasma treatment, gas cleaning and energy production. 2) Plasma gasification uses a very high temperature environment to break down waste materials into a useful product called synthesis gas ‘syngas’
1)Syngas can then be used to generate:
3. Liquid fuels such as ethanol or diesel
2) Benefits of plasma gasification:
1. Significant reductions in carbon footprint and overall pollution 2. Creates an affordable and stable energy source
3. Uses renewable and recurring resources
4. Qualifies for financial incentives and credits
5. Existing commercially operating facilities for over 7 years. 3) Minimal feedstock preparation:
1. Reduce dependence on one feedstock, optimize revenue based on available feed stocks 2. Low emissions and waste material
3. Syngas, after cleanup, burns clean like natural gas
4. Vitrified slag is inert/non-leaching and does not contaminate soil or drinking water 5. Low greenhouse gas footprint
4) Plasma Gasification is not Incineration:
Incineration is focused on reduction of waste to ash.
Plasma gasification involves conversion of waste to synthesis gas and inert slag, with recovery of energy and other products and (sometimes) valuable metals. 5) Virtually any material can be reduced using plasma gasification: Sludge| Car stuff| Medical waste| Paper/cardboard|
Plastics| Asbestos| Glass| Ceramics|
Wood| Mixed solid waste| Steel beams| Concrete|
Stone| Sewage sludge| Oil sands| Solvents/Paints|
Bricks| Incinerator ash| Tyres| PCB|
6) How emissions from Plasma Gasification compare to those from Land filling: Even sealed landfill systems tend to leak eventually, posing risks to ground and Surface water. substantial quantities of methane also emanate from land filled trash. E) ON GOING PROJECTS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENTS:
LANDFILL MINING PROJECTS:
Landfill mining in India was observed in many cities with closed or overflowing landfills such as landfill in Autonagar, Hyderabad, which was being mined for compost by excavating and sieving the land filled material. The compost is sold to organic fertilizer companies to be used in agriculture as a supplement to chemical fertilizer according to the Integrated Plant Nutrient Management policy. This process involves loosening, spraying a bio-culture and regularly turning the waste beds. It is then followed by sieving and packing. By 2007, landfill mining was carried out seven times in five different cities, namely Nashik (in 2003), Madurai, Mumbai (in 2004), Hyderabad (in 2004, 2007) and Pune (in 2006, 2007). These seven projects together cleared more than 60 hectares of landfill area, emptying more than 5million cubic meters of waste. This corresponds to about 3 million tons of MSW considering a bulk density of 0.5 tons/m3.
5) SECOND SCENARIO: TAMIL NADU
A) MSW (MUNICIPALITY SOLID WASTE)
Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board has addressed all local bodies in Tamilnadu to take necessary steps for compliance with various provisions of the said rules. Though composting and landfill have been specified as waste treatment/disposal option, Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board is advocating the concept of segregation at source, reduction, recycle and reuse of waste. This is done keeping in view of the high capital cost and operating cost involved in construction, operation of landfill. Few private entrepreneurs have established composting facilities for composting municipal solid waste. Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board is emphasizing the development of a system of primary collection of segregated waste. Incineration of unsegregated municipal solid wastes is not allowed in view of the hazards generated due to incomplete combustion and formation of dioxins and furans. In order to have an effective management of municipal solid waste generated, segregation of wastes at source (individual houses) must be carried out. Segregation can be done as wet compostable , dry recyclable, domestic hazardous, inert wastes, construction debris, etc. Segregated waste must be collected house-to-house. The compostable wastes can be composted in a composting yard. Recyclable wastes can be sent to scrap dealers for recycling. The domestic hazardous, inert wastes, construction debris can be land filled in a secure landfill site. By segregating the wastes at source, the quantity of municipal solid wastes coming to the landfill site will be reduced by 60% thereby the requirement of land for land filling will be reduced. S.No| Name of the District| No. of Units| Total Quantity of HW generation in MTA| Quantity of HW in MTA| | | | | Landfills | Recyclable | Incinerable |
1| Chennai | 94| 1644.412| 187.817| 1014.273| 443.022| 2| Coimbatore | 368| 23182.115| 22261.478| 822.481| 98.156| 3| Madurai | 116| 2007.506| 964.064| 564.230| 479.212| 4| Salem| 118| 13190.126| 9474.828| 794.816| 2920.483| 5| Vellore | 153| 18308.324| 13696.382| 4264.254| 347.688| 6| Trichy | 54| 2906.545| 990.104| 972.721| 943.720| 7| Erode | 341| 6191.714| 5923.200| 268.514| ---|
8| Kanchipuram | 162| 8913.883| 6095.389| 1750.418| 1068.076| 9| Namakkal | 116| 1664.310| 1519.830| 144.480| ---| 10| Thiruvallur | 154| 25011.549| 5306.754| 17960.480| 1864.315| | TOTAL | 1676| 103020.484| 88681.324| 28556.667| 8164.672| BIOMEDICAL WASTE:
The Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board enforces this rule. The Tamilnadu Pollution Control Board has inventorised 317 Government Hospitals and 1835 private hospitals. There are about 92,000 hospital beds all over the State. Since biomedical waste incinerators cause emission. Effluent Treatment Plant a fully equipped laboratory should be located at least 500 m away from any habitations and water bodies.
So far 11 common facilities have been identified for the private sector health care units in the State at PLACES| DISTRICTS|
1.Thenmelpakkam 2. Chennakuppam 3. Orattukuppai-1 4. Sengipatti 5. Kandipedu 6. Thangavur 7. Coonoor 8. Muthuvayal 9. Orattukuppai - 2 10.Ettankulam 11. Undurumikkidakulam | Kancheepuram District Kancheepuram District Coimbatore District Thanjavur District Vellore District Salem DistrictNilgiris DistrictRamanathapuram DistrictCoimbatore DistrictTirunelveli District Virudhunagar District|
The above eight facilities are under operation. The last three are nearing completion. B) ZERO WASTE MANAGEMENT:
Zero Waste System: Meeting the Needs of the 21st Century and Beyond A Zero Waste System is cyclical, like in nature, and does two fundamental things: It redesigns our systems and resource use—from product design to disposal—to prevent wasteful and polluting practices that lead to those 87 cans of waste. It then captures discards and uses them, instead of natural resources, to make new products, creating far less pollution and feeding the local economy.A Zero Waste System has:New rules and policies that take a responsible approach to using and conserving dwindling natural resources. New manufacturing processes and smarter design where manufacturers are held responsible for the full lifecycle of their products, giving them the incentive to design for the environment, NOT the dump. New programs in every sector of our society to shift our culture away from wasting and toward a sense of responsibility for our planet and its future. Resource recovery infrastructure to replace landfills and incinerators and recover 90% or more of our discards. Empowered citizens like you who now live in a system that supports your efforts, while you continue to call for Zero Waste progress in your community. |
India’s first zero waste toilet built by Farmer:
A farmer couple in Trichy cooks food without LPG they have invented a new technology to cook food and save the high prices of LPG. The farmer couple uses biogas as a substitute for cooking food.
Lawyer turned organic farmer S. Thalapathy (45) has built up India’s first zero waste toilet at Rs37, 000. The toilet is constructed with the technology of NGO SCOPE which is used in the field of sanitation. The toilet facility has five models that work integrated- a flush toilet, a bathroom, a urine diversion bowl, a cultivated wetland for management of waste of water. The bathroom waste is used to water plants in the garden. And the solid waste and organic waste is converted into methane gas which is used and supplied in the kitchen for cooking.
‘Chemical-free’ computer developed
India’s biggest IT service provider Wipro has produced a computer free from PVC (polyvinylchloride) and BFR (brominated flame retardants). The computer named ‘Greenware’ will be the first of its kind to reach the Indian market and will cover 15% of Wipro’s total PC product portfolio. Wipro was one of many electronics companies to pledge to remove these chemicals from their products in 2005, following a Greenpeace campaign. However, so far only Apple and Acer have succeeded in this aim, with many larger companies failing to change their products. Toxic waste is a particular concern in India, along with other Asian countries, as a lot of the waste produced in developed countries ends up being dumped here for recycling in unregulated environments. There is currently an ongoing legal case which involves Wipro, along with Indian electronic producer HCL, as they are calling for greater control and regulation and voluntary action on white waste management in India.
c) ONE OF THE ONGOING LATEST PROJECT IN VALLAM NEAR BY SASTRA: Vallam to be model for solid waste management:
Vallam town panchayat and Neelagirivattam panchayat near Thanjavur will be made models for solid waste management said N.Ramachandran, Vice-chancellor, Periyar Maniammai University, and chairman, Clean Thanjavur Movement. Presiding over the executive committee meeting of Clean Thanjavur Movement, Ramachandran said "Valam Kundra Vallam" is a project aimed at making the town panchayat a model for solid waste management. In this project Periyar Maniammai University, Ponnaiah Ramajayam Institute of Science and Technology University, Shanmugha Arts Science Technology and Research Academy (SASTRA) University, Marudupandiyar College, Swami Vivekananda Group of Institutions, and Adaikamalamatha College are involved. Vallam town panchayat consists of 15 wards and a population of 14,816. People will be given coloured bins – green and yellow – to segregate wastes such as plastic, iron, and glass on one bin and wastes that can be decomposed easily in another bin.
Parasuraman, president of Neelagiri panchayat, said plastics have been eradicated in the panchayat and solid waste management techniques will be taught to people. Ramachandran said other models should be created in Thanjavur. Accordingly wards 58 and 51 will be made models for solid waste management. Each household will be given coloured bins green and yellow – to segregate wastes such as plastic, iron, and glass on one bin and wastes that can be decomposed easily in another bin. The residents of the Vallam panchayat have been provided Yellow and Green Bins to segregate the biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.
Vallam Clean Ambassadors:
The town panchayat has hired a few people termed as Clean Ambassadors who will collect the segregated wastes from each and every household. They proclaim their arrival by blowing whistles, ringing bells in a fixed timing everyday. “Polluters Pay Principle”
The panchayat has also passed strict orders that the dumping of waste along the streets or roads are strictly prohibited and those who are involved in doing such activities will be punished in accordance with the rules of the Town Panchayats by enforcing “Polluters Pay Principle” -The Hindu (article)08.08.2012
6) THIRD SCENARIO: OUR COLLEGE ,”SASTRA”.
Our college,SHANMUGA ARTS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH ACADEMY (SASTRA) is established in 1984. It is situated in Thirumalaisamudram (Thanjavur-Thiruchirapalli highways at a distance of 17km from Thanjavur and 40km from Thiruchirpalli), Tamilnadu. A sprawling campus ,housing a built up area of over 25,00,000 square feet and a vibrant population of over 9000 students and 700 teaching faculty and floating population of about 2000 have made SASTRA, a landmark in the educational map of India. Apart from studies, arts and sports, it also inculcates civic interests among the students. AMENITIES:
In SASTRA, 18 blocks are present. In that, 7 for Boys Hostel, 4 for Girls Hostel and 1 for Staff Quarters. So, different wastes and garbage disposals are collected and followed in all fields such as: 1) Boys and Girls Hostel
3) Classrooms and laboratories
5) Cow shed
6) Research block
The garbage disposal methodologies / treatments are:
A) ETP (Effluent Treatment Plant)
c) Dump yards (Dumping and Incineration Yards)
DETAILED STUDY AND DISPOSAL / SEWAGE / SULLAGE GENERATED IN SASTRA: OBJECTIVES:
The wastes, mainly garbage/sullage/sewage which has been generated in many forms inside our university. These generated wastes have been disposed in many ways via burning/dumping/converting into manure. It is also utilized for Biogas Generation (garden watering/vermicompost preparation). The detailed study has been made about the waste collection methodologies/conveyance, treatment processes, disposal types etc, At the same time,our university has made the study to improve the existing system. SOURCES OF WASTE GENERATION:
1. in hostel:
-> Toilet waste
2. Academic blocks:
-> For drug research
-> guinea pig, white rats, frogs, snakes are used.
-> Dead animals, food waste, medicinal waste
3. Hospital wastes:
-> Surgical wastes
4. In canteen:
-> Decayed vegetables
-> Plastics cups, spoons, plat
-> burning of coal/wood (which is used for boilers)
5. Road sweep wastes:
-> Dry leaves
-> Waste papers
As part of its initiatives to optimize utility of renewable energy, SASTRA University on Friday commissioned an 80 KW biogas plant on its campus. The plant of 600 m3 capacity inaugurated by P. R. Muralidharan, Deputy General Manager, Tamil Nadu Energy Development Agency (TEDA), utilizes human and animal waste to produce power and would cater to the energy requirements of the hostels. Mr. Muralidharan lauded the efforts of SASTRA in promoting research and development in photo-voltaics, wind energy and biomass conversion. Commissioning of the park marked the start of a two-day symposium on New and Renewable Energy (SYNERGY 2011).Tamil Nadu ranks first in the country in harnessing renewable energy sources, Mr. Muralidharan said. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES:
Muralidharan stressed on the need to identify, develop and nurture alternate energy sources, stating that nearly 65% of India's energy requirement was dependent on thermal power and that only 11% of our energy demand was met by renewable energy sources. Out of India's renewable energy installations, 42% were based in Tamil Nadu. Fast dwindling fossil fuel reserves coupled with the high transmission & distribution losses involved in thermal power plants have necessitated the development of multiple networks of renewable energy installations.He urged researchers to focus on improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of renewable energy. A) EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT-1
->from the girls hostel the sewage and sullage are collected in bulk. ->from the primary settlement tank it is directed to the aeration tank. ->Primary treatment reduces the velocity of the wastewater so that settling and floatation can take place. ->Floating material is Collected by a surface skimmer.
->The main purpose of secondary treatment (sometimes referred to as biological treatment) is to provide BOD removal beyond what is achievable by primary treatment. ->The general arrangement of an activated sludge process for removing carbonaceous pollution includes the following items:
->This process involves air or oxygen being introduced into a mixture of sewage with EM SOLUTION (composed of saprotrophic bacteria) which reduces the organic content of the sewage.
->Settling tank usually referred to as "final clarifier" or "secondary settling tank” separates the biological sludge from the clear treated water. ->the sludge collected is dried and is used as manure for our college farms.
->the water from the sedimentation tank is directed to the treated water tank ->this tank contains 2 filters
a. Carbon filter
->the water collected from the 2 filters is then chlorinated and the water is used for gardening.
c) Bio gas plant:
->biogas (mixture of CH4, CO2)
->it is produced by the break down of organic wastes by bacteria without oxygen(anaerobic digestion or fermentation). ->generated bio gas can be used as a fuel for the energy source Working:
->the type of plant in our campus is floating drum plant. ->the sullage from the girls hostel is collected in the collection tank which is then sent to the digester. ->the following are also used as feed:
1. Left over foods from canteen
2. Left over straw and crops from farming
3. Cow dung
4. Agricultural residues
->All the substrates are fed into the digesters, which are forced to enter into the blending pump inside the conveyors. ->the substrate after fermentation produces biogas which is collected in the gas holder at the top of the digester. ->the temperature of the gas in the gas holder is +40 degree c. ->it is then directed to the refrigerator where the temperature of the gas is brought down to -12 degree c. ->the moisture removal filter and hydrogen sulphide filter removes the moisture and H2S. ->the extracted methane gas is used as a fuel for ETP motor and for producing electricity.
1) volume of biogas=600m3/day.
2) feed=10-12 tons
->if it runs for one hour it generates 22 units of current. second genset=>50kwA*0.8=40kwA
->if it runs for one hour it generates 35 units of current.
B) ON GOING PROJECTS: GO GREEN 2020
Goals of “Go Green”:
? Propagate the need for Environmental Care
? Takes knowledge directly to the minds of Students.
? Organize Seminars, Classes to various schools.
? Conduct workshops and develop leadership among the world citizens.
What you can do???
? Share your thoughts with us!
? Extend your help to make world Green!
? Exchange your views to move Green!
? Re-Use the possible things, Reduce the Waste of
7) PREVENTIVE MEASURES:
When we think of preventive measures RECYCLING OF WASTES comes into play. WHAT IS RECYCLING?
Recycling turns materials that would otherwise become waste into valuable resources and generates a host of environmental, financial, and social benefits. After collection, materials (e.g., glass, metal, plastics, and paper) are separated and sent to facilities that can process them into new products and materials.
RECYCLING BASED ON PRIORITIES:
1) First Priority:
Primary Pollution and Waste Prevention
2) Second Priority:
Secondary Pollution and Waste Prevention
3) Last Priority:
DECIDING WHAT TO RECYCLE:
In some municipalities, businesses are required to recycle certain commodities such as: ->Bars and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages might be required to recycle glass ->Office buildings might be required to recycle office paper, newspaper and cardboard ->Hotels, restaurants, food courts, grocery stores, hospitals, and food manufacturers who generate large volumes of food waste might be required to recycle food waste ->You should contact your local solid waste regulator to determine what materials you must recycle. BENEFITS:
->reduces air and water pollution.
->reduces mineral demand.
->reduces greenhouse gas emission.
->reduces solid waste production and disposal.
->helps to protect biodiversity.
->can save landfill space.
->important part of economy.
->Reduced energy consumption
->Conservation of natural resources
->Extension of valuable landfill capacity
->Stimulates the development of greener technologies
->Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants ->Proper management of solid waste
->Involving public in plans for waste treatment and disposal ->Provide the public accurate, useful information about the whole projects, including the risks and maintain formal communication with public ->Educate people on different ways of handling waste.
7) RESPONSIBILITIES OF EACH CITIZEN:
E-wastes should never be disposed with garbage and other household wastes. This should be segregated at the site and sold or donated to various organizations. 8) WHAT CAN WE DO???
->follow the 3 R's.
->ask yourself whether you need a particular item.
->rent, borrow materials.
->buy things that are reusable, recyclable/compostable.
->be sure to reuse, recycle and compost them.
->avoid disposables like plastic cups, plates etc..
->use e-mail/text messaging in place of conventional paper mail. ->encourage online exams rather than written exam which save paper and trees from cutting down. ->read newspaper/magazines online.
->buy products in bulk whenever possible.
"EARTH IS OUR HOME" So we have to protect our earth with future concerns. we would like to create awareness through our college social project "GO GREEN 2020".All interested people can join in this social networking page and we can make a revolution !!! We would like to conclude this project with the quote of mother Teresa: "I only feel angry when I see waste when I see people throwing away things we could use" - Mother Teresa.
-Freeman M. H. 1989. Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal, McGraw-Hill Company, USA. http://www.bookrags.com/essay-2005/12/6/181736/296/
http://krishibhoomi.in/detailnews.aspx?Dept=Technologies&SID=27 http://www.tniusnews.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=48&Itemid=81 http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/susdevtopics/sdt_wastsoli.shtml
you tube link:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6xyRx_98Rc(plasma gasification) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6xyRx_98Rc(bio gas plant working)
handbook of solid waste management by: George Tchobanoglous, Frank