• Performance Appraisal
    study of employeesreactions to PA is important because of two main reasons: employee reactions symbolizes a criterion of interest to practitioners of PAs and employee reactions have been associated through theory to determinants of appraisal acceptance and success.[42] Researchers translate these...
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  • Ms Me
    more easily than people who are easily angered or upset.Initiative appealis that the benefits of such measures, such as nicer or less crowded classrooms, are often immediately apparentHOW MANAGERS CAN INFLUENCE MOODSThese work events trigger positive or negative emotional reaction. But employees...
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  • Black model
    ) Financial distress: A situation in which available cash flows are insufficient to cover suppliers, employees and creditors Signs/Stages of financial distress 1. 2. 3. Negative net cash flows and earnings, deterioration of all financial ratios, falling equity market values (investors’ reaction...
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  • Human Resource Management
    which you are familiar. (10 marks) Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals (employees): one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is...
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  • Why Do Firms Go Public
    a profit without having to explain itself to irate shareholders. But this time Clark had power, through his equity stake. He called a meeting to discuss the initial public offering (IPO), and stacked it with lawyers and bankers who stood to reap big fees from a public share offering and who were...
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  • Organizational Behavior
    response to dissatisfaction. 5.1.1. Affective Events Theory describes that an event can trigger both positive and negative emotional reactions in the work environment. It states that personality and mood determine intensity response. Emotions can influence a broad range of work variables. 5.1.2. The...
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  • Do Poor and Strong Performers React to Performance Appraisal Differently?
    using forced ranking sometimes even have to cope with extreme reactions of so called “difficult” employees. These groups react to negative assessment either in aggressive or too emotional manner. (Management Curriculum: Personal Developement, 2008) That is why sometimes frontline managers may wish...
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  • No Title
    can use in motivating employees Work motivation explains why workers behave as they do. Four prominent theories about work motivation—need theory, expectancy theory, equity theory, and procedural justice theory—provide © Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 58 Organizational Behavior...
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  • Orginizational Behavior
    motivation Theories of motivation - Personality and Values Read the following chapter in Organizational Behavior: chapter 5 ("Personality and Values") LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 Define personality, describe how it is measured, and explain the factors that determine an individual’s...
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  • BNC1
    what a person is capable of becoming.    higher-order needs Needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.    Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform...
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  • Miss
    , that received negative publicity in 2009, because the bank would invest in weapon manufacturers. In reaction to this, a website for consumers gave ING a poor rating, which probably have cost ING new clients. Such events contributed to the increasing attention for corporate sustainability over the...
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  • Orgenigational Beheviour
    1) Define emotional intelligence. Explain goleman’s modal of emotional intelligent | Emotional Intelligence - EI - is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman's 1995 Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally...
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  • Organisational Behaviour
    Theory X assumptions, management' role is to coerce and control s employees. o o People have an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it whenever possible. People must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened with punishment in order to get them to achieve the organizational objectives. o...
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  • Oraganization behaviour
    on display rules. affective events theory (AET) A model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors. Emotional Intelligence 6 Contrast the evidence for and against the existence of emotional...
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  • organisation behavior
    environmentally caused. It can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Equity Theory According to this theory (Adams, 1965), employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. If, an individual...
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  • Stack Ranking: Brilliant Management or Inherent Absurdity
    and Morale The most visible disadvantage to stack ranking is the overwhelmingly negative reaction of most employees. At its most basic the results from a round of stack ranking are that 80% of all employees will be rated as average or poor. This will serve as a major disincentive to motivation...
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  • Organization Behaviour
    employees motivation levels should be constantly assessed | * | 5. What is equity Theory? Explain This is the principle of balance or equity. According to this theory, an individual’s motivation level is linked to his/her perception of equity, fairness and justice practiced by...
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  • Organizational Behaviour
    equitably he is treated at work. • 88. EQUITY THEORY… To express his ideas, Adam used following formula: Person’s Outcomes Equity exists when- Person’s Inputs Other’s outcomes Other’s inputs Negative Inequity exists when- Person’s Outcomes Person’s Inputs Other’s outcomes Other’s inputs...
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  • Child Labour
    scenarios. This understanding is well founded in communication and negotiation theory. Habermas (1999, p. 42) for instance, explains how dialogue between parties is the only way that universal acceptance of norms (or standardization) can occur. Individual reasoning and self-reflection, while useful for...
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  • Capital Structure
    third PRI recognises that different theories may have the same practical implications thus making difficult the task of distinguishing amongst them. For instance, both agency theory and signalling theories predict a positive reaction to dividend increases and negative reaction to decreases. One possible...
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