Wireless Energy Meter

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ABSTRACT

In the age of ecological awareness, and the conclusion that energy should not be wasted, it is necessary to investigate the places where electrical energy is consumed. The effective energy usage of a device can often be determined by monitoring the according electrical devices over a long space of time. The measuring can easily be done by simple Energy Meters from the local do-it-yourself store. An energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy that is being consumed by a residence, business, or an electrically powered device. Electric meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour. Present energy meter reading is a tedious and an expensive affair as it requires manual collection of reading which is erroneous.Automatic Electric Meter reading is one method reading and processing data automatically with computer and communication. It not only may relieve reading person's labor intensity, reduce the reading mistake, but also has the advantage of high speed and good real-time. The project of the wireless Electric Meter reading for wireless communication technology completes the design of automatic Electric Meter reading system. There the data can be interpreted and may be even compared to data from other wirelessly connected devices. Through researching the characteristic of main wireless communication protocol, ZigBee is chosen as lower layer communication protocol. ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on an IEEE 802 standard for personal area networks. The standard of ZigBeeis optimized for low data rate, low power consumption, security and reliability. Wireless energy meter using ZigBee is very useful for accurate energy billing apart from intelligent load shedding and theft detection.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
Electricity is the driving force behind the development of any country. With the rapid increase in residential, commercial, and industrial consumers of electricity throughout the world, it has now become imperative for utilities companies to devise better, non-intrusive, environmentally-safe techniques of gauging utilities’ consumption so that correct bills can be generated and invoiced. The electricity system is one of the most important infrastructures in the modern society because it is the electrical power source of the electrical machines, e.g. motors and generators, used in the factory and also for the electrical appliances and lighting in households. Recently, an automation system has been applied to many basic infrastructures such as electricity, gas, and water systems in order to facilitate the routine work such as a manual control and a unit recording operation. Nowadays, the unit recording has to be done by human before the end of each month. Since the unit recording was done by human, the human error becomes the major problem of system. Recently, the smart meter concept has been popularly adopted by many leading electricity companies in USA and EUROPE in order to overcome the problem of human error in the unit recording as well as provide the automatic procedure to report the energy meter impairment and the tampering activity of misbehaved subscribers by using the advance wireless and wired communication technologies. To improve the efficiency and accuracy of metering systems, Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system has been discussed and used for a long time. AMR is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy metering devices (water, gas, electricity etc.) and transferring the data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers a better control of their use of electric energy, gas usage, or water consumption. In this paper, a design and...
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