Autpmated Energymeters Using Rf Transmission

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• Topic: Data transmission, Parity bit, Electricity meter
• Pages : 20 (6048 words )
• Published : February 20, 2013

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

1.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRIC METER
An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy consumed by a residence, business organisation, or an institution. Electric meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour. Periodic reading of electric meters establishes billing cycles and energy used during a cycle. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. In some areas, the electric rates are higher during certain times of day, to encourage reduction in use. Also, in some areas meters have relays to turn off nonessential equipment.
Fig 1.1.1.a: A contemporary meter

1.1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTEMPORARY METERS
Even though the contemporary meters are widely used, there are many shortcomings associated with it, viz. 1. Inefficient use of Labour force
In today’s time when skilled labour force is limited not easily and cheaply available, it is highly impractical and not cost effective for electrical energy supplying companies to employ human resources for just collecting reading from various individual consumers. 2. Indication of Short Circuits

Contemporary meters are incapable of indicating any kind of short circuit or any other mishappenings with the meter. 3. Faulty Meter readings
Many a times, due to human shortcomings it so happens that the meter readings get interchanged at the time of reading and the consumer is charged for the electricity he hasn’t used. This may also take place intentionally due to personal grudges and avarice.

4. Time Consuming
Since the entire process requires human force to be present at each of the remote location to record the reading and hence it is time consuming. 5. Less User-Device Interaction
Generally there is no interaction between the user and the energymeter except during the manual billing process. 6. Handicap of Illiterates/Busy/Blind people
Generally the above category people have no interaction with the energymeter due to individual handicaps.

1.2 ELECTRICAL POWER MEASUREMENT
Power (P) is a measure of the rate of doing work or the rate at which energy is converted. Electrical power is the rate at which electricity is produced or consumed. Electric power is the combination of the water pressure (voltage) and the rate of flow (current) that results in the ability to do work. Electrical power is defined as the amount of electric current flowing due to an applied voltage....