The project “Automated Electricity Meter” aims to move away from the traditional method of manual reading of electricity meters in which an individual has to physically record the reading. Instead the project proposes to successfully be able to take the meter reading automatically without having a person be physically present while taking the reading, thereby reducing manpower requirement. This system helps the users by alerting them about the peak loads (max energy consumption), power status (ON/OFF), billing status etc. The voice alerts could be in any local language. Hence this system can be used across the world. The typical voice alerts are “Over load”, “Pay electricity bill”, “Turn off the lights” etc. This system also consists of a LCD display that continuously displays the energymeter readings in real-time. This consists of Real-time clock for calculating the average,max and minimum readings with respect to time. This information is display on a LCD display. As the project name suggests, the vision of our project is to create an automated environment for the purpose of meter readings and thus reduce the dependency on human resources. Thus the Talking Energymeter/Smart energymeter would be the an interactive representative of the company for the purpose of taking readings without involving human error.
1.1.1 DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRIC METER
An electric meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electrical energy consumed by a residence, business organisation, or an institution. Electric meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour. Periodic reading of electric meters establishes billing cycles and energy used during a cycle. When energy savings during certain periods are desired, meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. In some areas, the electric rates are higher during certain times of day, to encourage reduction in use. Also, in some areas meters have relays to turn off nonessential equipment.
Fig 1.1.1.a: A contemporary meter
1.1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONTEMPORARY METERS
Even though the contemporary meters are widely used, there are many shortcomings associated with it, viz. 1. Inefficient use of Labour force
In today’s time when skilled labour force is limited not easily and cheaply available, it is highly impractical and not cost effective for electrical energy supplying companies to employ human resources for just collecting reading from various individual consumers. 2. Indication of Short Circuits
Contemporary meters are incapable of indicating any kind of short circuit or any other mishappenings with the meter. 3. Faulty Meter readings
Many a times, due to human shortcomings it so happens that the meter readings get interchanged at the time of reading and the consumer is charged for the electricity he hasn’t used. This may also take place intentionally due to personal grudges and avarice.
4. Time Consuming
Since the entire process requires human force to be present at each of the remote location to record the reading and hence it is time consuming. 5. Less User-Device Interaction
Generally there is no interaction between the user and the energymeter except during the manual billing process. 6. Handicap of Illiterates/Busy/Blind people
Generally the above category people have no interaction with the energymeter due to individual handicaps.
1.2 ELECTRICAL POWER MEASUREMENT
Power (P) is a measure of the rate of doing work or the rate at which energy is converted. Electrical power is the rate at which electricity is produced or consumed. Electric power is the combination of the water pressure (voltage) and the rate of flow (current) that results in the ability to do work. Electrical power is defined as the amount of electric current flowing due to an applied voltage....