Water Consumption

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Research of domestic water consumption: a field study in
Harbin, China
by
Tingyi Lu

A research project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science of Loughborough University

SEPTEMBER 2007
Supervisor: I.K. Smout
BA, MSc, CEng
FICE, MIAgrE, MCIWEM

Water, Engineering and Development Centre Department of Civil and Building Engineering
Research of domestic water consumption: a field study in Harbin,China

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Acknowledgement
The authors take this opportunity to express sincere thanks to Mr. I. Smout, the project supervisor. This project could not be completed without his guidance and suggestion.
Thanks to many other friends who took part in the study and without whose assistance this report would not have been possible.
A special word of thanks is expressed to all the households whose patience, co-operation and effort provided the necessary information to enable a better understanding of domestic water use in Harbin.

Research of domestic water consumption: a field study in Harbin,China

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Table of Contents
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2

3

4

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 6 1.1
Background ............................................................................................... 6 1.2
Problem statement ..................................................................................... 6 1.3
Aims and objectives .................................................................................. 7 1.4
Overall structure of the study.................................................................... 8 Literature Review.................................................................................................... 9 2.1

Introduction ............................................................................................... 9 2.2
Finding the literature ................................................................................. 9 2.3
Residential water use standard ................................................................ 10 2.4
International experiences ........................................................................ 12 2.4.1 Water consumption trend................................................................ 12 2.4.2 Water metering ............................................................................... 13 2.4.3 Household size ................................................................................ 14 2.4.4 Patterns of water use ....................................................................... 16 2.4.5 Water efficient appliances .............................................................. 20 2.5

General facts on China ............................................................................ 22 2.5.1 Water issues of China ..................................................................... 22 2.5.2 Municipal water supply .................................................................. 24 2.5.3 Water price in China ....................................................................... 26 2.5.4 Residential water consumption in Chinese cities ........................... 28 2.6

Review of Harbin .................................................................................... 31 2.6.1 Background information ................................................................. 31 2.6.2 Water resource ................................................................................ 32 2.6.3 Residential Water consumption ...................................................... 34 Methodology ......................................................................................................... 36 3.1

Literature search...................................................................................... 36 3.2
Data collection method...
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