China Research Paper

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Davon Holmes
10/10/2012
Sociology
China
China is the world’s most populated country with the population of 1.3 billion people. Since there were so many people in China they had to think about a way to control population so this is where the one-child policy was made. It officially restricts married, urban couples to having only one child, while allowing exemptions for several cases, including twins. This policy was introduced in 1978 and initially applied to first-born children from 1979. The policy is enforced at the local level through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family and other factors. China had three major eras in their history Ancient China, Imperial China, and Modern China. First, there was Ancient China during this age came the Xia Dynasty (2100-1600 BC), next was the Shang Dynasty, The written history of china can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty which was between 1700-1046BC, but much of Chinese culture, literature, and philosophy was further developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC); together these three dynasties make up the Three Dynasties era. Afterwards came the Imperial era, right after Ancient China. Here there were twelve other dynasties. The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China, and it was the first to claim China. The Great Wall of China was to protect China from the invasion of the Xiongnu people from Mongolia. The Xiongnu tribe was China's main enemy at that time. The Chinese built the Great Wall to prevent them from entering and conquering China. Qin Shi Huang was known for being china’s first emperor. Next, was the Han Dynasty, known as the “Golden Era” of China was a period of peace, prosperity and economic growth. China was a leader in the arts, culture and literature. The Three Kingdoms Era of China was a period of War in the Country of China between three equally powerful states in China, These states where called the Wu State, the Wei state, and the Shu-Han state. The warring of the three states occurred after the collapse of the Han Dynasty. The Warring period lasted from 220AD to 265AD. There were three Central figures during this time, Cao Pi, who founded the Wei Kingdom, and claimed himself as emperor at Luoyang. Liu Bei, the leader of the Shu-han State claimed himself emperor of Han, in an attempt to restore the fallen Han dynasty. Sun Quan took control of Wu as their king.  Then there was Jìn Dynasty, there are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin and the second Eastern Jin. Later came the Southern and Northern Dynasties.  This period also witnessed the explosions of thoughts, literature and science. Up to the Southern and Northern Dynasties, poets became increasingly interested in more lyric verses in which poetries showed their feeling and emotion by narrations of natural landscapes. Soon after, came the Sui Dynasty; the Sui Dynasty managed to reunite the country after nearly four centuries of political disagreements. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that would late be picked up by The Tang. These included the government system of Three Departments and Six Ministries, standard coinage, improved defense and expansion of the Great Wall, and official support for Buddhism. The collapse of the Sui Dynasty was caused by their overly used resources. The Tang Dynasty followed the Sui Dynasty. Founded by Emperor Gaozu in the year 618. Like the Sui dynasty the Tang Dynasty was supporters of the religion Buddhism and it became a prevailing religion. Along with the other institutions adopted from the Sui Dynasty the Tang also picked up the government system of Three Departments and Six Ministries. Making new policies like the “Equal-Field system”, {a policy that claimed all land as imperially owned, and granted evenly dependent upon the size of the house hold family}, allowed the system to grow, especially while being under the only empress regnant in china’s...
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