Uninterruptible Power Supply

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  • Topic: Uninterruptible power supply, Power factor, Electric power
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  • Published : March 30, 2011
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White Paper #1
The Different Types of
UPS Systems
Revision 5
By Neil Rasmussen
2003 American Power Conversion. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, photocopied, transmitted, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature, without the written permission of the copyright owner. www.apc.com Rev 2004-5 2

Executive Summary
There is much confusion in the marketplace about the different types of UPS systems and their characteristics. Each of these UPS types is defined, practical applications of each are discussed, and advantages and disadvantages are listed. With this information, an educated decision can be made as to the appropriate UPS topology for a given need. 2003 American Power Conversion. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, photocopied, transmitted, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature, without the written permission of the copyright owner. www.apc.com Rev 2004-5 3

Introduction
The varied types of UPSs and their attributes often cause confusion in the data center industry. For example, it is widely believed that there are only two types of UPS systems, namely standby UPS and online UPS. These two commonly used terms do not correctly describe many of the UPS systems available. Many misunderstandings about UPS systems are cleared up when the different types of UPS topologies are properly identified. UPS topology indicates the basic nature of the UPS design. Various vendors routinely produce models with similar designs, or topologies, but with very different performance characteristics. Common design approaches are reviewed here, including brief explanations about how each topology works. This will help you to properly identify and compare systems. UPS types

A variety of design approaches are used to implement UPS systems, each with distinct performance characteristics. The most common design approaches are as follows: • Standby
• Line Interactive
• Standby-Ferro
• Double Conversion On-Line
• Delta Conversion On-Line
The Standby UPS
The Standby UPS is the most common type used for Personal Computers. In the block diagram illustrated in Figure 1, the transfer switch is set to choose the filtered AC input as the primary power source (solid line path), and switches to the battery / inverter as the backup source should the primary source fail. When that happens, the transfer switch must operate to switch the load over to the battery / inverter backup power source (dashed path). The inverter only starts when the power fails, hence the name "Standby." High efficiency, small size, and low cost are the main benefits of this design. With proper filter and surge circuitry, these systems can also provide adequate noise filtration and surge suppression. Figure 1 – Standby UPS

BATTERY INVERTER
TRANSFER
SWITCH
BATTERY
CHARGER
SURGE
SUPPRESSOR FILTER
DC
AC2003 American Power Conversion. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used, reproduced, photocopied, transmitted, or stored in any retrieval system of any nature, without the written permission of the copyright owner. www.apc.com Rev 2004-5 4

The Line Interactive UPS
The Line Interactive UPS, illustrated in Figure 2, is the most common design used for small business, Web, and departmental servers. In this design, the battery-to-AC power converter (inverter) is always connected to the output of the UPS. Operating the inverter in reverse during times when the input AC power is normal provides battery charging.

When the input power fails, the transfer switch opens and the power flows from the battery to the UPS output. With the inverter always on and connected to the output, this design provides additional filtering and yields reduced switching transients when compared with the Standby UPS topology. In...
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