Travel and Tourism

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GOVERNMENT
Governments are involved with tourist organizations at both international and national levels. The role of government is an important aspect of tourism which involves policies and political philosophies. In the developing countries, where tourism is still new, the public sector controls tourism activities, where they have Ministry of Tourism (e.g. Embratur in Brazil), which have the following duties: Licensing, supervision and control of the different components of the tourism industry. Tourism planning, including financial assistance for tourism development, notably trough the provision of infrastructure. Facilitation/liberalization - moving away from isolation and going towards a free market. Regulation of tourism policies for overall tourism development. On the other hand, in developed countries with a well established tourism industry such as UK. The responsibilities are given to the private sectors and if by any chance there are any problems then the public sector comes in the picture. Local government's (local authorities) role

Country councils, district or borough councils, and parish councils that deal with tourism activities at a local level are included in the local authorities. The first priorities of local authorities are to provide a range of leisure and cultural facilities for local residents. These vary from outdoor facilities such as parks, sports field, playgrounds, picnic sites etc to indoor facilities like sports centre, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. They also plan for tourism like provision of visitors services such as car and coach parking facilities, provide caravan sites (with licensing and management being the responsibility of the District Councils), safety issues to the visitors and maintenance of local historic sites. They also provide statistics for RTB's and are mainly funded from: i.Grants from central government

ii.Council tax - system of local taxation used in England, Scotland, and Wales to fund the services provided by the local government iii.Service charges (e.g. in restaurants)
National government's role
The national government provides plans and policies, which covers tourism development, with foreign exchange and employment opportunities being maximized. They are responsible for providing infrastructure (roads, electricity) and providing planning permission to private sectors to build superstructures which can be accessed by visitors. The government can also finance some projects which seem unprofitable to the private sector for e.g. for any project the private sector would pay one third and then leave it to government. The government plays an important role in the protection of tourism resources which are irreplaceable. Organizations such as English Heritage, the National Parks Authority, the Forestry commission, the Countryside Commission, the Council for the Protection of Rural England, and the Society for the Protection of the Ancient Buildings have been established by the government to ensure that tourism resources (especially natural ones) are protected. Another important role of the government is consumer protection. The legislations which provide consumer protection are: The Trade Descriptions Act - this act prevents the manufacturers, retailers from misleading consumers as to what they are spending money on. ·The Data Protection Act - this protects the personal data in a country. ·Monopolies and Mergers Commission - body responsible for market shares and investigating mergers. The government's main funds are collected from different kinds of taxation: Income taxes (from salaries and wages)

Corporate tax
Inheritance tax
Capital gains tax (taxes on assets sold for profit)
Indirect taxation
European Union (EU)
The EU is a political and economic union of 27 members states which is primarily located in Europe. The direct role of EU in tourism is harmonization, simplification and easing of restrictions in trade and transportation...
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