Punctuality: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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ABSTRACT SHETYE, TARA. Differences in Attitudes Towards Time at Work: Validation of the Time Preferences at Work Scale. (Under the direction of Frank J. Smith.) The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument to measure differences in workers’ preferences related to the passage of time at work. Previous research indicates that this construct may have implications for the effectiveness of work teams, as well as other work outcomes such as person-organization fit. However, current methods of measuring time preferences are incomplete. Using a ten-factor theoretical framework introduced by Brislin and Kim (2003), a comprehensive instrument was designed and validated. In the first step of the validation, content validity evidence and item quality were assessed, demonstrating that the items were of acceptable quality and content-appropriate. Construct validity was then assessed. Undergraduate students (N = 601) responded to the 186-item questionnaire, as well as a variety of personality and background items. Analyses were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, an exploratory factor analysis revealed a six-factor structure to the items. The second stage of analysis used confirmatory factor analysis to test this structure. Finally, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Overall, the findings suggest that this scale is psychometrically sound and suitable for use in organizations.

DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES TOWARDS TIME AT WORK: VALIDATION OF THE TIME PREFERENCES AT WORK SCALE

by TARA SHETYE A thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science PSYCHOLOGY Raleigh April 2006 APPROVED BY ___________________________ ____________________________

___________________________ Chair of Advisory Committee

ii BIOGRAPHY Ms. Shetye was born on July 25th, 1981, in Buffalo, New York. Ms. Shetye is the daughter of Mohan Shetye, of Maharashtra, India, and Diane Shetye, of Buffalo, NY. Her parents currently reside in Buffalo, with her younger brother, Arun. Ms. Shetye attended Williamsville North High School in Williamsville, NY. After graduating in 1999, she enrolled in the University of Pittsburgh, where she pursued a B.S. in Psychology. During this time, Ms. Shetye also worked at a local drugstore, which provided her the opportunity to begin exploring her interests in personality and culture in the workplace. After graduating cum laude in 2003, Ms. Shetye moved to Raleigh, NC, where she is currently pursuing the PhD in Psychology at North Carolina State University. Ms. Shetye is active in the university community. She is president of the Graduate Association of Students in Psychology, as well as Head of the Committee for Professional Development and Student Representative for the North Carolina I/O Psychologists Network. She is also an Advisor for the Center for Student Leadership, Ethics, and Public Service at NCSU. Ms. Shetye has taught a variety of undergraduate courses, including Social Psychology, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, and Research Methods. In 2005, she was recognized as an Outstanding TA by the University Graduate Student Association. Ms. Shetye has worked on a number of applied research projects, including climate surveys, training evaluations, and leadership assessments. She is currently working as a member of Dr. Lori Foster Thompson’s Electronic Monitoring Lab. Ms. Shetye was recently married to Daniel J. Behrend, a Teach for America Corps member and 6th grade teacher in Vance County, NC.

iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would first like to thank my committee, Dr. Frank Smith, Dr. Adam Meade, and Dr. Lori Foster Thompson. Each of them was incredibly supportive and encouraging throughout the stages of this project. I am also grateful for their expert advice, whether technical or procedural (or punctuational!), and their patience, flexibility, and confidence in my work. Somewhere around...
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