Progress of Malaysian Women

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The Progress of Malaysian Women Since Independence 1957 - 2000

Published by: Ministry of Women and Family Development Level 1-4, Block E Bukit Perdana Government Office Complex Jalan Dato’ Onn 50515 Kuala Lumpur Tel:03-29630095 Fax:03-26938498 E-mail:info@kpwk.gov.my Website:www.kpwk.gov.my

With funding support from: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam Published September 2003 ISBN:983-41432-0-6 Printed by: Bar Code Design Network

Copyright © 2003 Ministry of Women and Family Development. All Right Reser ved. Request for permission to reprint any material should be directed to the Ministry of Women and Family Development.

CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOREWORD CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY III. METHODOLOGY IV. OVERVIEW OF THE REPORT V. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING VI ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN VII. LEGAL STATUS OF WOMEN - Women under the Federal Constitution - Employment Legislation and Women - Other Laws Affecting the Status of Women VIII. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 2 - EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF WOMEN I. INTRODUCTION II. FORMAL EDUCATION - Enrolment in Primary and Secondary Schools - Female Enrolment in Technical and Vocational Education - Tertiary Education - Education Attainment of Rural Women - International Comparison in Educational Attainment III. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IV. FUTURE CHALLENGES V. RECOMMENDATIONS VI. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 3 - WOMEN AND THE ECONOMY I. INTRODUCTION II. TRENDS IN WOMEN'S ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION - Women in the Labour Force - Employment Status of Women - Employment by Sector - Employment by Occupational Category - Potential Growth Areas: Women in Business and Professional Services

Page
vii x 14 14 16 17 18 19 23 26 26 27 28 30 33 33 33 34 37 39 42 42 43 47 50 51 53 53 54 54 55 56 61 64

The Progress of Women Since Independence

III. IV. V.

- Women Entrepreneurs: From Micro-Enterprises to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) FUTURE CHALLENGES RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION

65 67 70 72 73 73 74 74 74 76 78 79 79 80 80 82 82 83 84 86 87 89 90

CHAPTER 4 – WOMEN AND HEALTH I. INTRODUCTION II. GENERAL HEALTH STATUS - Indicators of Health Status - Maternal Mortality - Nutritional Status of Women - Fertility Trends III. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES - Family Planning - Antenatal and Postpartum Care - Management of Cervical and Breast Cancers IV. HEALTH CONCERNS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM - Health Needs of Older Women - Domestic Violence - Mental Health - The HIV/AIDS Epidemic V. FUTURE CHALLENGES VI. RECOMMENDATIONS VII. CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 5 – WOMEN IN DECISION MAKING AND POWER SHARING 93 I. INTRODUCTION 93 II. TRENDS IN LEADERSHIP AND POWER SHARING 94 - Political Membership and Leadership 94 - Political Candidacy 96 - Elected Offices and Appointments 97 - Representation in the State Assemblies 99 - Share of Leadership and Decision-Making Positions in the Public Sector 99 - Key Management Positions in the Public Sec tor 99 - Appointments in the Foreign Service 101 - Representation in Local Authorities 101 - The Grassroots Level 103

III. IV. V.

- Management Positions in the Private Sector - Non-Government Organizations (NGO), Trade Unions and Cooperatives - Participation in NGOs - Participation in Trade Unions - Representation in Cooperatives FUTURE CHALLENGES RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION

104 105 105 106 108 108 111 112 115

REFERENCES

LISTS OF BOXES
Box 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 3.1 Titles Page Malaysia’s First Lady, Dato’ Seri Dr. Siti Hasmah bt. Mohd. Ali – An Inspiring Role Model for Malaysian Women 12 Definition of Discrimination 30 Selected Relevant Declarations and Action Plans Signed by the Government of Malaysia 31 Scaling Up Micro-Enterprises, Department of Agriculture 46 Datuk Muhaiyani Shamsuddin, Founder and Managing Director of Muhaiyani Securities Sdn Bhd and Deputy Chairperson of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange 66 Dato’ Sharizat Abdul Jalil –...
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