Process- Abd Content-Based Theories of Motivation

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The main task of the manager (after setting the goals and the time frames) is to organize the work process, in particular to force employees to work. You must somehow motivate them to induce to action. It is clear that the main motivating factor are wages, but there are many other factors that cause a person to work with.

Motivation is a way to encourage yourself and others to action purposefully to achieve the goal. It is a certain external factor affecting the person and his inner state, which increases person's desire to work.

Content-based theories

Content-based theories of motivation based on identification of the internal motives that make people act in a certain way. These theories are related to the studies of human needs and mechanism of their influence on the process of motivation. In this case “the needs” mean physiological or psychological sense of lack of anything. Need cannot be observed directly, but its existence can be judged by what man does, because that is the factor that largely determines people's behavior.

All content-based theories of motivation complement and extend each other. The figure 1 shows their comparative characteristics
Figure 1 Overview of content-based theories of motivation

Maslow identifies five main categories of needs, which are arranged in a pyramid (Fig. 8.2). Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs.

Figure 2. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
1. For the most part, physiological needs are obvious — they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function. 2. With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like. 3. After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. Humans need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. 4. Humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness. 5.“What a man can be, he must be.”[8] This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person's full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.[9] This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific Clayton Alderfer expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs' an intrinsic desire for personal development. Between Maslow’s and Alderfera’s theories there is one fundamental difference consisting in the fact that, according to Maslow, when people meet the needs of lower-level they can shift to the higher level....
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