1.0 A PRELUDE TO THE PAPER
This paper is divided into three main parts: the first part of this paper attempts a discussion on what shall form the explanations for the various ways in which people behave. In the course of her discussion, the author of this paper premises her discussion upon the following related matters; factors which influence peoples’ behavior, explanations on the reasons behind different ways in which people behave, and lastly will the author discuss the importance of studying behavior of the people in an organization. The second part of this paper discusses on the issue why should a manager need to understand individual differences; and antecedent to giving my response to the mentioned issues the author discusses the following: what do individual differences mean, types of individual differences, how do they differ from one another, she finally finishes with the answer on why managers should have knowledge of these individual differences. The third part discusses on what roles emotions play in an individual’s performance effectiveness. Prior to this the following i.e. the meaning of emotions, types of emotions and importance of emotions are discussed. Part four of this work constitutes a tentaive conclusion.
2.0 EXPLANATIONS ON VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH PEOPLE BEHAVE
Most of the text and research emphasizes the importance of individual behavior and how managers should use this knowledge for the best interests of the organization. In the organization social system, the relationship between the manager and the employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional. While the manager tries to assess the behavior of the subordinate, the subordinate also makes a continuous effort to evaluate the manager’s perspective and adapt to it. If this bi- directional process is successful it would create a behavioral congruence between manager and subordinate and would be a positive outcome. Otherwise it would lead to dissatisfaction and frustration for both of them and would eventually lead to end of their relationship through job termination.
Behavior depends on its consequences; therefore, it is possible for managers to control (or at least effect) a number of employees behavior by manipulating their consequences. Person tends to repeat behavior that is accompanied by favorable consequences (reinforcement) and tends not to repeat behavior that is accompanied by unfavorable consequences. It follows therefore form this that, the manager must be able to identify some powerful consequences (as perceived by the employee), and then must be able to administer them in such a way that the employee will see the connection between the behavior to be affected and the consequences. (Keith Davis & John W. Newstron, 1989)
According to Kelley’s Theory of causal of Attribution there are various ways in which people behave. From this conceptualization, the basis of judgments of internal and external causality on observations is made with respect to three types of information as follows; firstly consensus which is the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person who we are judging. If others behave similarly consensus is considered to be high; if others do not, consensus considered to be low. Secondly consistency which refers to the extent to which the person who we are judging acts the same way at other times. If the person acts the same at other times, consistency is high; if the person does not, consistency is low and lastly distinctiveness which means the extent to which a person behaves the same way in other contexts. If the person behaves the same way in other situations, distinctiveness is low; if the person behaves differently, distinctiveness is high....