Motivations and Marketing Drivers of Taiwanese Island Tourists: Comparing Across Penghu, Taiwan and Phuket, Thailand Sung Hee Park1∗ , Chi-Ming Hsieh1 and Regina McNally2
Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies, Michigan State University, 131 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA 2 Department of Management and Marketing, Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland 1
The island tourism market is a major growth segment, worldwide, for international tourism. Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand, have become major destinations for foreign and domestic island tourism for Taiwanese tourists. Island tourists might have different reasons for choosing domestic versus international destinations. The objectives of this study are: (1) to identify motivational factors and marketing drivers across the two islands; (2) to investigate measurement invariance across samples; and (3) to examine the moderation effect of marketing drivers on the relationship between island tourists’ motivations and their travel behavior, across samples. The measures were validated via conﬁrmatory factor analysis, using EQS, and identiﬁed four motivational factors: experience, facilities and services, natural resources, and special events. Moderated regression was carried out to examine whether marketing drivers have a moderating effect on the relationship between motivation, and trip duration and group size. As there is measurement invariance exhibited throughout the samples of both Penghu and Phuket tourists, managers and academics alike can be conﬁdent that the scales capture the motivations and marketing drivers effectively across different contexts. In addition, marketing drivers moderate the effect of motivation on trip duration and group size in Phuket, and on group size in Penghu. Both islands need to emphasize that tourist motivations for experiencing island travel can bring a longer stay through pricing and promotional tour package programming. Key words: island tourism, push and pull motivations, marketing drivers
ISSN 1094-1665 print/ISSN 1741-6507 online/10/030305– 13 # 2010 Asia Paciﬁc Tourism Association DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2010.503622
Sung Hee Park et al Government (2009), the population of Penghu is 91,785. The islands cover a land area of 141 km2 and are comprised of six administrative districts: one city (Magung) and ﬁve townships (Huxi, Baisha, Shiyeu, Wangan and Cimei). Penghu Island is famous for its abundant natural resources, as well as for its cultural and historic heritage. In particular, tourists come for its marine resources. Popular activities include sea ﬁshing, scuba diving, glass-bottom boat trips and dolphin watching. It has long been a favorite island destination among the Taiwanese and brings in approximately 504,000 tourists annually, with domestic tourists accounting for 98% of its visitors in 2008 (Penghu National Scenic Area Administration, 2009). Phuket is Thailand’s largest island. Phuket is made up of one large island and 39 small islands, which are situated off the west coast of Thailand. According to NileGuide (2009), the islands cover a land area of 570 km2 and are divided into three administrative districts in which approximately 314,000 people reside. Phuket Island is famous for its abundant natural resources, such as its wide and long beaches, and is well known for its international festivals and events, such as the Phuket Gay Festival, the Phuket Vegetarian Festival, and Loi Krathong. Most tourists come for its marine and natural resources. Popular activities include snorkeling and scuba diving, and short boat trips. The Tourism Authority of Thailand (2007) reported that 3.3 million international tourists traveled to Phuket in 2007. Tourism income in Phuket accounts for 33% of Thailand’s total tourism revenue;...