RESEARCH NOTES AND REPORTS
Graham, B., G. J. Ashworth, and J. E. Tunbridge 2000 A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture and Economy. London: Arnold. King, A. D. 1976 Colonial Urban Development: Culture, Social Power and Environment. London: Routledge. Nash, D. 1989 Tourism as a Form of Imperialism. In Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, V. Smith, ed., pp. 37–52. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Palmer, C. 1994 Tourism and Colonialism: The Experience of the Bahamas. Annals of Tourism Research 21:792–811. Shaw, B. J., and R. Jones 1997 Contested Urban Heritage: Voices from the Periphery. Aldershot: Ashgate. Southall, A. 1971 The Impact of Imperialism upon Urban Development in Africa. In Colonialism in Africa 1870–1960, V. Turner, ed., pp. 216–255. London: Cambridge University Press. Western, J. 1985 Undoing the Colonial City? The Geographical Review 75:335–357.
Submitted 14 June 2000. Resubmitted 15 October 2000. Accepted 18 December 2000. Revised 20 December 2000. PII: S0160-7383(01)00009-3
Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 257–260, 2002 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0160-7383/01/$22.00
Push and Pull Relationships
Seong-Seop Kim Sejong University, South Korea Choong-Ki Lee Dongguk University, South Korea
Uysal and Jurowski (1994) found that there is a relationship between push and pull factors. Dann (1977) referred to motivational inﬂuences on an individual as push factors. These are psychological needs which play a signiﬁcant role in causing a person to feel a disequilibrium that can be corrected through a tourism experience. These intrinsic motives include escape from personal/social pressures, social recognition/prestige, socialization/bonding, self-esteem, learning/discovery, regression, novelty/thrill, and distancing from crowds (Botha, Crompton and Kim 1999). In the model of Leiper (1979), a
RESEARCH NOTES AND REPORTS
tourist generating region features motivations that cause or stimulate the ﬂow. Thus, people expect their needs for an optimal level of stimulation to be fulﬁlled by their tourism experience. Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs theory and Plog’s (1974) psychographic theory are closely related to these push factors. This demand-side approach helps to understand tourists’ decision-making process. Pull factors, on the other hand, are generally viewed from a supply-side dimension. The force of attractions in a destination area is generally considered as exerting a pull response on the individual. Resources normally considered pull factors include natural attractions, cultural resources, recreational activities, special events or festivals, and other entertainment opportunities. Some destinations feature a mixture of these various resources to meet a variety of motives, while others represent one distinctive resource and target on a speciﬁc market segment. This study is a replication of a previous one conducted by Uysal and Jurowski (1994) who examined the nature and extent of the reciprocal relationship between push and pull factors for pleasure tourism. Data used here were collected from those visiting six National Parks located in South Korea. Based on literature review, 12 motivational items (push factors) and 12 National Parks attributes (pull factors) were generated. A pretest was conducted on undergraduate students in order to reﬁne the selected factors. An onsite survey was then conducted in six Korean National Parks during the summer vacation in 1999. The push and pull factor items of participants were measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. A total of 2,720 usable questionnaires were ﬁnally collected. To validate the push and pull scales, a principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was undertaken. Of 12 push items, four with greater than eigenvalues of 1.0 were extracted, which explained 58% of the...
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