An Examination of the Effects of Motivation and Satisfaction on Destination Loyalty: a Structural Model

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ARTICLE IN PRESS

Tourism Management 26 (2005) 45–56

An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model Yooshik Yoona,*, Muzaffer Uysalb
b a Department of Tourism Management, Pai Chi University, 439-6 Doma-2Dong, Seo-Gu, Daejeon 302-735, South Korea Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 362 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429, USA

Received 14 November 2001; accepted 29 August 2003

Abstract This study offers an integrated approach to understanding tourist motivation and attempts to extend the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationships among the push and pull motivations, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The research model investigates the relevant relationships among the constructs by using a structural equation modeling approach. Consequently, destination managers should establish a higher tourist satisfaction level to create positive post-purchase tourist behavior, in order to improve and sustain destination competitiveness. r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Tourist motivation; Satisfaction; Destination loyalty; Structural equation modeling

1. Introduction In an increasingly saturated marketplace, the success of marketing destinations should be guided by a thorough analysis of tourist motivation and its interplay with tourist satisfaction and loyalty. A review of tourism literature reveals an abundance of studies on motivation and satisfaction, but destination loyalty has not been thoroughly investigated. Primarily, the tourism studies to date have addressed and examined the constructs of motivation and satisfaction independently. The causal relationships with travel motivation, satisfaction, and destination loyalty have been only conceptually or superficially discussed. Additionally, conceptual clarification, distinctions, and logical linkages among the constructs have been lacking. A review of the literature on motivation reveals that people travel because they are ‘‘pushed’’ into making travel decisions by internal, psychological forces, and ‘‘pulled’’ by the external forces of the destination attributes (Crompton, 1979; Dann, 1977; Uysal & Jurowski, 1994). Accordingly, satisfaction with travel *Corresponding author. Tel.: +82-42-520-5876. E-mail addresses: ysyn@pcu.ac.kr (Y. Yoon), samil@vt.edu (M. Uysal). 0261-5177/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2003.08.016

experiences, based on these push and pull forces, contributes to destination loyalty. The degree of tourists’ loyalty to a destination is reflected in their intentions to revisit the destination and in their recommendations to others (Oppermann, 2000). Thus, information about tourists’ loyalty is important to destination marketers and managers. This study offers an integrated approach to understanding tourist motivation and attempts to extend the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationships among the push and pull motivations, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. A research model is proposed and tested in the study. The model investigates the relevant relationships among the constructs by using a structural equation modeling approach. In order to provide a theoretical background for the proposed model, the authors, first review tourist motivation literature and discuss the concepts of push and pull motivations, and then provide a discussion of tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. It is hoped that the results derived from the model will serve as the basis for the development of destination marketing strategies. One expected advantage of an improved understanding of these causal relationships is that a solid psychological process or mechanism in the development of loyalty could be demonstrated. Obviously, tourists

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46 Y. Yoon, M. Uysal / Tourism Management 26 (2005) 45–56

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