Line Follower Robot
Robotics Workshop Currents 15th march 2008 EEE Department NIT Trichy
Developed By: Mayur Agarwal Prashant Agrawal Krishna Nand Gupta Hitesh Meghani
To Our Readers
We are glad to have had an opportunity to share our knowledge with interested robotics enthusiasts. In this book we have attempted to provide a brief compilation of our experiences in robotics (participating and winning in Technical Festivals all over the country), extending over last three years. The prospect of practically implementing engineering concepts is the hallmark of robotics. By reading the basics in this book you will gain a significant insight into various tools employed in shaping a robot. However to participate in technical festivals with ever changing problem statements you will be required to apply these basics concepts and come up with innovative algorithms and superior designs. Do not expect this book to be a panacea for all robotic problems, rather you will have to sit and work for hours to get a functioning robot. Transform each failure into a stepping stone instead of stumbling over it. We appreciate the beauty of diamond but little do we wonder how it became so bright? Its perseverance extending thousands of years transformed it into its present sparkling state. We encourage you to plunge further into the field of robotics with dedicated perseverance, make your own mistakes and gain valuable experience from them. ALL THE BEST
Your valuable suggestions and inquisitive doubts are welcome. You can contact us at
Mayur Agarwal (email@example.com ) Krishna Nand Gupta (firstname.lastname@example.org) Prashant Agarwal (email@example.com Hitesh Meghani (firstname.lastname@example.org ) )
Figure4: Sample Arena of Robo‐Relay of Kishitij’08 (IIT KGP)
Figure 1: Basic Sample Arena
Figure 2: Sample Arena of Kurukshetra’08 (Anna University)
Figure3: Sample Arena of Pragyan’07 (NIT Trichy)
From above images we can conclude that in most of line follower competitions, some additional task has to be performed apart from following the line.
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The path is a black line on a white background with width of 3 cm (except at bends where a little variation may be present). It may contain paths laterally displaced by around 3 cm and also gap of at most 5 cm. (All these specifications may vary from one competition to another).
The line follower is a self operating robot that detects and follows a line that is drawn on the floor. The path consists of a black line on a white surface (or vice versa). The control system used must sense a line and maneuver the robot to stay on course, while constantly correcting the wrong moves using feedback mechanism, thus forming a simple yet effective closed loop System. The robot is designed to follow very tight curves.
Basic design and requirem ments
The robot is built using ATmeg b ga8L, L293D, IR se ensors, LM M324, pla atform consisting of a toy car chassi (or hand made Al g is d luminum s sheet chass sis), two m motors and contr rolling wh heels. It h infrared sensors on the bo has d ottom for detecting black tracking t tape. Line position i captured with the help of th is d hese optica sensors called al opto-coup plers moun at the front end of the robo (Each o nted ot. opto-coupler consists of an s IR LED and an IR Senso or). When the sen n nsors detec black surface, o ct output of compa arator, LM3 is low while for white surface the o 324 w, output is h high. It is s sent as input to the mic o crocontroller for a accurate c control a and steerin of m ng motors. Microcon ntroller AT Tmega8L a Motor d and driver L29 are use to drive the motor 93D ed e rs.
Basic operat tion
W or N IT
Block D Diagram
Let’s see all the sys stem in...