Liepers Model

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The model comprises of three basic elements are as follows:
(1) Tourists:
The tourist is the key player in this system. Tourism, in fact, is a human experience, enjoyed, anticipated and recalled by a lot as a historic and/or life time aspect. Therefore, defining the tourist and its classification turns out to be equally relevant. (2) Geographical Elements:

Leiper describes three main geographical elements in his system’s model. These are: (i) Traveller-generating region
(ii) Tourist destination region
(iii) Transit route region
The traveller-generating region (TGR) exemplifies the area breeding markets for tourism, and practically acts as the ‘push’ force to motivate and stimulate i.e., set off and encourage travel. It is this region where the tourist tries to seek information, goes for reservations and makes the departure. This region is basically related to the demand aspect of travel and tourism. Further, the tourist destination region (TDR) symbolizes the ‘sharp end of tourism’ and is, indeed, the raison d’ etre for tourism. The pull force of the destinations activates the whole tourism system besides begetting demand for travel in the traveller generating region. According to Leiper, it is at the destination where the most noticeable and dramatic consequences of the system occur. Since, it is the destination where the utmost impact of tourism is felt, therefore, the planning and management strategies are implemented in this region. Furthermore, the transit route region (TR) typifies not only the in-between places which may be visited en route, but also the short period of travel to get to the destination. Leiper highlights that ‘there is always an interval in a trip when the traveller feels they have left their home region but have not yet arrived. Where they chose to visit’. (3) Tourism Industry:

The third element of the model is the tourism industry comprising the variety of businesses and organizations responsible for supplying the tourism product. The model provides for the location of the different industrial sectors to be identified. For instance, the tour operators and the travel agents are primarily set up in the traveller- generating region, attractions and the hospitality business are located in the tourist destination region and the transport industry is largely situated in the transit route region. The operation of the Leiper’s tourism system is such that there is not only an interaction between each element of the system but with other sectors as well so as to deliver the tourism product, to assess the occurrences and impacts of tourism, and the varied backgrounds influencing the occurrence of the tourism activity as represented. An analysis of two major elements of Leiper’s model well illustrates the fact that tourism industry is an industry of noticeably different qualities. Whilst on the one hand, the demand for tourism in the traveller generating region is essentially erratic, inconsistent, seasonal and illogical, the supply is fragmented, unadaptable and rigid in the destination region, on the other. Interestingly, supply is able to match the demand, a sure recourse for the financial fluidity and unpredictability in tourism. Again, the characteristic features of the Leiper’s model can be found in its generalization and lack of sophistication, and these are instrumental in facilitating a practical and effective viewpoint respecting tourism. However, there are other features as well. i. Leiper’s model is not based or focus on any particular discipline rather makes available a generalized framework capable of incorporating interdisciplinary approaches to tourism. ii. The model is not a specific one but has a vast scope i.e., tailored to being put to use to any degree or level of generalization, from a local resort to the international industry. iii. The system’s model also substantiates the basic principle of tourism that there is an interrelationship and interaction amongst the...
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