1.1.Tourism: according to F.W. Ogilvie (1933), tourism can be defined as ‘persons who go to somewhere rather than home or workplace for a period of time and spend money in that place’. But this definition has its limitations as it is too broad and it does not have specific standards or criteria to define tourism.
Many organizations have been tried to come up with an accurate definition of tourism, but till now they only commonly accepted some factors that help to define tourism. Tourism is an activity of human beings which must comply with three factors--- time range, distance parameter, and a circular journey. The time ranges from 24 hours to 1 year, the travel distance should be more than 100 kilometers and the activity must finish at where it started. (French, C 2000 p4-p6)
1.2.Hospitality: The Oxford English Dictionary (Soanes & Stevenson, 2003, p. 839) gives hospitality a definition as ‘the act or practice of being hospitable; the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors or strangers with liberality or goodwill’. Giving a working definition, todays’ hospitality is operated in a commercial way in which services related to travel, accommodation, entertainment, foodservice, gaming, attractions, meeting and exposition are provided. (Tom Baum, 2011, p.20). Despite of how hospitality was interpreted, the main concept is that in hospitality there will be someone acts as a host and treat visitors with respect, make they feel comfortable and happy and help them as much as you can.
The similarities between tourism industry and hospitality industry will be discussed at individual, community and government level. 2.1.Individual level
From an individual prospective, tourism and hospitality can be seen to be comprised of 3 equal components: transportation, foodservice and lodgment. All which are just as essential to each other.
Transportation can be linked with tourism and hospitality, as they are often seen to be mentioned with each other. For instance, Tourism Training Australia (1998) listed tourism industry into 3 sectors, which are travel, hospitality and visitor services. Another example would be if people intend to take a trip overseas, they may have to book tickets through a travel agency who will also provide you with relevant information such as journey routes. During the flight, they will also receive cabin service and if the destination is unknown to them, they might go to information center for help or catch a taxi to go to a specific place. These services related to their travel can be classified as hospitality and also belong to tourism industry.
When acting tourism activities, no matter how limited budget the travelers have, they must intake food to maintain their life and have to find accommodation to stay overnight. For most of travelers, the expenditure on food and accommodation could account for a significant amount of their total travel budget. According to the statistics carried out by Henry Mok (1985), the top four expenditure items for tourists in 1984 are shopping (37.2%), accommodation (17.1%), food and meals (29%) and transport (14%). These expenditure items are linked to hospitality industry as Christine French (2000) believes that hospitality could be divided into two sectors: food and beverage, and accommodation.
The primary motivation of business is making profits. Some local communities such as Crete heavily rely on tourism and hospitality as they do not have productions of heavy engineering or manufactories (Andriotis, 2002). In other words, the performance of tourism and hospitality industries determines communities’ development. Thriving in tourism and hospitality indicate more employment needs, more foreign exchange and more investments, which will finally benefit communities by improving general living standard. In order to achieve this, much research should be done to find suitable strategies.