1.1Background of the Study
Globally, educating a nation remains the most vital strategy for the development of the society throughout the developing world (Aikaman & Unterhalter, 2005). Many studies on human capital development concur that it is the human resources of a nation and not its capital or natural resources that ultimately determine the pace of its economic and social development. Since education is an investment, there is a significant positive correlation between education and economic-social productivity. When people are educated, their standards of living are likely to improve, since they are empowered to access productive ventures, which will ultimately lead to an improvement in their livelihoods. The role of education therefore, is not just to impart knowledge and skills that enable the beneficiaries to function as economies and social change agents in society, but also to impart values, ideas, attitudes and aspirations important for natural development.
In spite of the government initiatives in improving access, equity and quality of education, the secondary sub-sector continues to face challenges, particularly the low participation rates, low transition rates from primary to secondary and from secondary to tertiary (particularly to universities), as well as gender and regional disparities. From the researches that have been conducted on the impact of the government efforts to improve access equity and quality on performance indicate that most public schools have a lot of wastage, very poor performance in national examinations and poor learner preparation to face the world after school. It has become alarming since the number of secondary school graduates from public day and boarding schools exit without entry grade to university is increasing day by day. This has increased crime rate, drug and substance abuse, immorality and cases of HIV and AIDS on the increase.
It is, on this backdrop that the research endeavors to establish reasons why even when the Government has done so much to increase access, equity and quality to education still good performance remains for a few secondary schools (without the district) and many Kenyan children are still coming out of school with poor grades that can not help them move to the next level or get meaningful training. How can the problem be remedied and which adjustments need to be made. To this end, this proposed research will analyze the effect of management or leadership styles of the principal on the teachers and students performance.
The theoretical framework adopted for this study is derived from the systems theory of organizations, which emerged as part of an intellectual ferment following the World War II, although its roots are much are much older. Its founder, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, was concerned about growing compartmentalization of knowledge and argued that certain general ideas could have relevance across broad spectrum of disciplines: that despite obvious differences among the many kinds of organizations, they share very general characteristics and that is important to discover what they are(Hong et al., 2004).
The systems theory cuts across all the four paradigms of management thoughts, for every organization that produces output in a system of some of sort (Katz & Kahn, 1966). And an organization, including a school, regardless of its size and purpose, and the management perspective adopted not withstanding, basically concerned with relationships, structures and interdependence rather than just constant attributes (Katz & Kahn, 1966). This study will be modeled on the postulates of systems theory because schools, like other organizations, are always in constant exchange with the larger society.
Rosemary as cited in BPP (1999) defines management as ‘‘the art of getting things done through others’’ (p. 96). Fabunmi (2001), however, defines management ‘‘as the coordination of all the resources of an...