Modern Systems of Higher Educaiton and Its Impact on the Socioeconomic Development in Afghanistan

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Dunya Institute for Higher Education

The Essence, Effect and Impact of Modern Systems of Higher Education for Socio-economic Development – a Descriptive, Causal and Narrative Study done in 3 Organizations in Kabul

By: Shaima Hussaini
F/Name: Mohammad Salam
ID number: 40814
Class: BBA, E2, Morning
January 2012

Introduction
Education as overall has direct impact on promoting the socio-economic development of any country. The Modern Systems of Higher Education came in Afghanistan since Taliban regime collapsed in 1380. It is for one decade that we are experiencing the modern systems of higher education commonly used in private educational sectors. Obviously using of modern and up to date systems or methods of education has great and positive impact on the socio-economic development of a country. It affects all the economical, technological, social, political and legal parts of a society. Higher education is such an imperative and sensitive affair in any society as it leads nations towards higher stages of development. Analyzing the course of a country's development through the elements of higher education namely, the number of higher education institutions, standard of education, aptitude of teachers, number of students in higher education, number of theses being produced every year and the number of research journals published by the higher education institutes makes it easier to gauge the pace of progress. Higher education is also considered a yardstick because the graduates of colleges and universities provide the future leadership in ideological, educational, political and national life. They also play a key role in determining the characteristics of a society, driving it towards rise or fall, or steering it towards right or wrong directions.  In this context, a study of evolution of higher education in Afghanistan would be highly significant at this crucial juncture of history when putting Afghan society on the right track of development is in the interest of world community at large. The initiatives in higher education in Afghanistan, their merits and demerits and the current trends that would implicate the future direction of development in Afghanistan also need to be studied and analyzed.  Higher Education in the past three decades:

Higher education in Afghanistan: a historical perspective :
Since Ahmed Shah Abdali laid down the foundation of modern Afghanistan in 1747, the country passed through a phase of in-fighting and resistance against British attempts at colonization. The situation prevailed until 1868 when Amir Sher Ali Khan came back into power. During this period, no government tried to establish a system of modern education. Following the old tradition, the people of Afghanistan in the meanwhile kept educating themselves in religious schools and from the lectures of religious scholars and clerics. Thanks to the efforts of Syed Jamaluddin Afghani, modern education got off to a start during the reign of Amir Sher Ali Khan (1863-1866 and 1868-1879). However, no institution of higher education could be established even then. The situation persisted during the reign of three subsequent rulers-Amir Abdul Rehman Khan (1880-1901), his son Amir Habibullah Khan (1901-1919) and his grandson Amir Amanullah Khan (1919-1929). The number of people with higher education in Afghanistan remained marginal comprised of those who either completed their education from Turkey, India and the United Kingdom, or they were Turkish or Indian citizens and moved to Afghanistan during that time. However, some Afghan students were sent to France, Germany, Russia, Turkey and other countries during the reign of Amir Amanullah Khan. Higher education started in Afghanistan in 1932 when Zahir Shah's father Mohammed Nadir Shah (1929-1933) established the faculty of physical sciences in Kabul. It was headed by a Turkish professor, Dr. Faqih Kamil Baig.The same faculty became the foundation stone of the Kabul University in...
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